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Browse Plants by Scientific Family Name
Family names on this web site are now mostly in accord with the APG system.
Be sure to read the list of family changes listed in Recent Additions.

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CLICK TO BROWSE by COMMON FAMILY NAME.
Click to read about family and species names.

 

Bold=Widely accepted scientific name provided by John Kartesz, ultimate authority for all plant names on this web site.
Not bold = synonym for the scientific name.

Click the scientific name for photographs, descriptive information, and range maps.

ssp.=subspecies       var.=variety      APG=Angiosperm Phylogeny Group

 

SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Aceraceae
Aceraceae (the Maple Family) has been dissolved and the genus Acer is now in Sapindaceae.
Adoxaceae

Shrubs and small, perennial, mat-forming herb. The latter with lobed leaves; erect flower stems topped by a box-like structure with five flowers attached, one on top of box and one on each side. Flowers regular and perfect. Flower structure of Adoxa unique in that the number of sepals, stamens, and other floral parts of the top flower are not the same as those on the side flowers. Fruit a dry or moist berry with 4 or 5 nutlets.

The Muskroot Family is also called the Adoxa Family.

Adoxaceae Muskroot
Musk Plant

 

Adoxaceae Muskroot
Blue Elderberry  
Adoxaceae Muskroot
Red Elderberry  
Adoxaceae Muskroot
Blue Elderberry  
Adoxaceae Muskroot
Red Elderberry  
Agavaceae

APG places this family in Asparagaceae (Asparagus Family). Plants succulent or nearly so. Leaves basal and cauline, usually long and pointed, tipped with spines, margins may have spines or fibers, and alternate although appearing as a spiral rosette around a stout flower stem which has numerous, often large, showy, fleshy flowers. Flowers usually perfect. Corolla parts in threes. Stamens 6, pistil 1. Fruit three-chambered fleshy or more often dried, firm, almost woody with numerous seeds.

The Yucca genus of this family is very common at lower elevations, prairie, and high desert and is quite interesting to study as it is completely dependent on the Pronuba moth (Tegeticula yuccasella) for pollination.

Agavaceae
Agave
Sand Lily
 
Agavaceae Agave

Yucca angustissima
var. angustissima

Narrow Leaf Yucca  
Agavaceae Agave Bailey's Narrow Leaf Yucca  
Agavaceae Agave Broad Leaf Yucca  
Agavaceae Agave Harriman's Narrow Leaf Yucca  
Alliaceae

APG places this family in Amaryllidaceae (Daffodil Family). Perennial herb; bulb 1 or on rhizomes, reforming each year; bulblets at bulb bases or on rhizomes; outer bulb coat brown, red-brown, yellow-brown, or gray; inner coats generally white (pink, red, or yellow); onion odor, taste present (except Nothoscordum). Stem: scapose, cylindric, sometimes flat or triangular. Leaf: basal, sheathing stem, linear [or not], cylindric, channeled or flat, generally ± withering from tip by flowering. Inflorescence: umbel (1-flowered in Ipheion), bracts generally 2, splitting and appearing 2+ or not, ± fused, enclosing flower buds, scarious. Flower: perianth parts 6 in 2 petal-like whorls, ± free to fused in lower 1/3–1/2; stamens 6, fused to perianth, filaments widened at base, anthers attached at middle; ovary superior, 3-lobed, chambers 3, ovules 2+ per chamber, style 1, stigma entire or ± 3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal. Seed: black, sculpture net-like, smooth, or granular. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Allium are often showy in very large numbers.

Alliaceae
Onion Taper-tip Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Nodding Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Geyer's Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Geyer's Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Large-petaled Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Nevada Onion  
Alliaceae Onion Textile Onion  
Alsinaceae
Weber's Alsinaceae is included in Caryophyllaceae by other botanists.
Amaranthaceae

Herbs, rarely subshrubs, annual or perennial. Stems without nodal spines. Leaves alternate or opposite, usually petiolate; blade margins entire. Inflorescence cymules arranged in spikes, panicles, thyrses, heads, glomerules, clusters, or racemes; each flower subtended by 1 bract and 2 bracteoles. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (plants then monoecious or dioecious), generally small or minute; tepals mostly (1-)4-5 or absent, distinct or connate into cups or tubes; stamens 2-5, anthers 2-locular with 1 line of dehiscence or 4-locular with 2 lines of dehiscence; ovary superior; ovules 1 or, rarely, 2 - many; style 1 or absent; stigmas 1-3(-5). Fruits utricles, dry, dehiscent or not. Seeds black, reddish brown, or brown.

Chenopodiaceae is now included in Amaranthaceae.

Amaranthaceae Amaranth
Four-Winged Saltbush
Amaranthaceae Amaranth
Shadscale
 
Amaranthaceae Amaranth
Lamb's Quarters
 
Amaranthaceae Amaranth
Gray Goosefoot
 
Amaranthaceae Amaranth

Grayia brandegeei

Siltbush  
Amaranthaceae Amaranth

Grayia spinosa

Spiny Hopsage  
Amaranthaceae Amaranth
Winterfat
 
Amaranthaceae Amaranth Nuttall's Poverty Weed  
Amaranthaceae Amaranth Green Molly  
Amaranthaceae Amaranth Tumbleweed  
Amaranthaceae Amaranth Tumbleweed  
Anacardiaceae
Primarily shrubs and trees, usually compound leaves. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, small in terminal clusters. Sepals 3-5, petals 3-5 or lacking. Stamens 5 or 10, pistil 1. Generally fleshy fruits (drupes) with one chamber and one seed. Many, as in the case of Toxicodendron rydbergii, produce Urushiol, an irritant. This family includes several species (Cashew, Pistachio, Mango) of economic importance.  The Sumac Family is also called the Cashew Family.
Anacardiaceae Sumac
Aromatic Sumac  
Anacardiaceae Sumac Smooth Sumac  
Anacardiaceae Sumac Poison Ivy  
Apiaceae

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Leaves usually divided several times. Flowers mostly regular and perfect. Sepals 5 or lacking; petals 5, small. Stamens 5, pistil 1. Fruits large or small, round or long and pendant, horizontal, or vertical. Members of this large and very frequently encountered family often have flat-topped, pancake shaped flower clusters (umbels) sometimes quite small, sometimes eight inches in diameter. Distinctive Parsley smell, especially when foliage or seeds are crushed. Some Parsley Family species in our area are very visible: Ligusticum porteri; some are easily overlooked: Oreoxis alpina; some are deadly: Cicuta maculata. "Umbelliferae" is an accepted alternate scientific name for this family and it is used by Stanley Welsh in his A Utah Flora.

The Parsley Family is also called the Carrot, Umbel, or Celery Family.

Apiaceae Parsley
Gray's Angelica

 

Apiaceae  Parsley 
Pinnate Angelica
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Water Hemlock
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Water Hemlock
 
Apiaceae Parsley
Hemlock Parsley
 
Apiaceae Parsley
Spring Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley
  Wide-winged Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley Fendler's Biscuitroot  
Apiaceae Parsley
Fendler's Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley Mountain Parsley  
Apiaceae Parsley
Newberry's Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley
Purple Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley
Turpentine Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Cow Parsnip
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Cow Parsnip  
Apiaceae
Parsley
Loveroot
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Giant Lomatium
 
Apiaceae Parsley Gray's Biscuitroot  
Apiaceae
Parsley
Canyonlands Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley Least Lomatium  
Apiaceae
Parsley
Parry's Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae
Parsley
Nine-leaf Lomatium
 
Apiaceae Parsley Alpine Parsley  
Apiaceae Parsley
Baker's Alpine Parsley
 
Apiaceae Parsley Turkeypea, Indian Potato  
Apiaceae Parsley Mountain Sweet Cicely  
Apiaceae Parsley Mountain Sweet Cicely  
Apiaceae Parsley Dwarf Sweet Cicely  
Apiaceae Parsley Western Sweet Cicely  
Apiaceae Parsley Cowbane  
Apiaceae Parsley Eastwood's Woodroot  
Apiaceae Parsley Mountain Parsley  
Apiaceae Parsley
Spring Biscuitroot
 
Apiaceae Parsley
  Wide-winged Biscuitroot
 
Apocynaceae
Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subwhorled to whorled, entire; stipules 0 or small, finger-like. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, cyme, generally umbel- or raceme-like, or flowers 1–2. Flower: bisexual, radial; perianth parts, especially petals, overlapped, twisted to right or left, at least in bud; sepals generally 5, fused at base, often reflexed, persistent; petals generally 5, fused in basal ± 1/2; stamens generally 5, attached to corolla tube or throat, alternate lobes, free or fused to form filament column and anther head, filament column then generally with 5 free or fused, ± elaborate appendages abaxially, pollen ± free or removed in pairs of pollinia; nectaries 0 or near ovaries, then 2 or 5[10], or in stigmatic chambers; ovaries 2, superior or ± so, free [fused]; style tips, stigmas generally fused into massive pistil head. Fruit: 1–2 follicles, (capsule), [berry, drupe]. Seed: many, often with tuft of hairs at 1 or both ends. From Jepson eFlora.)
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Amsonia, Bluestar
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane Amsonia, Bluestar  
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Dogbane
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Dogbane, Indian Hemp
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Antelope-horn Milkweed
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Pallid Milkweed
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane Asclepias cutleri Cutler's Milkweed  
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Big Seed Milkweed
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Showy Milkweed
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Whorled Milkweed
 
Apocynaceae Dogbane
Butterfly Weed
 
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepias is now in Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family).
Aspleniaceae These ferns grow in rocks or on trees, usually with erect stems. Leaves are monomorphic, from just 1 centimeter to over 3 meters long, with simple to pinnate blades, frequently with minute glandular hairs. Sori are borne on veins. Many species in this family hybridize. The family has about 700 species (many grown as houseplants) world-wide.
Aspleniaceae Spleenwort Grass Fern  
Aspleniaceae Spleenwort
Maidenhair Spleenwort
 
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Asteraceae

This is the largest plant family in the United States (~2,400 species) and the world (~23,000 species). The family is made up of shrubs and herbs with inconspicuous to showy flower heads that appear to be one flower but are actually a composite of a number of flowers. Flower heads may be made up of short-to-long, narrow, arching ray flowers (Taraxacum spp. [Dandelions]); or may be made up of short vertical, cylindrical disk flowers (Cirsium spp. [Thistle]); or, most commonly, may be made up of both ray and disk flowers (Hymenoxys hoopesii [Sneezeweed]). Ray flowers may number from one to several dozen. Disk flowers are often in the many dozens. Fruit is an achene, a one-chambered dry, hard fruit varying considerably in size. For more details see Disk Flower.

"Compositae" (used in A Utah Flora) is an accepted, but now uncommonly used, alternate name for this family. The Sunflower Family is also called the Aster, Daisy, or Composite Family.

Asteraceae Sunflower
Yarrow

There are over 200 Asteraceae
on this web site, i.e., nearly 20% of all species are Asteraceae.

Asteraceae Sunflower
Yarrow  
Asteraceae Sunflower Knapweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Fragrant Snakeweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Mountain Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Mountain Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Bahia  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Pearly Everlasting
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Flat-top Pussytoes  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Cushion Pussytoes
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
White-margined Pussytoes
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Rocky Mountain Pussytoes  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Red Pussytoes
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Heartleaf Arnica
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Broadleaf Arnica
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Soft Arnica
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Parry's Arnica
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Rydberg's Arnica  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Bigelow's Sagebrush
 
Asteraceae Asteraceae Northern Sagewort  
Asteraceae Asteraceae Carruth's Sagewort  
Asteraceae Asteraceae Wild Tarragon  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Sand Sagebrush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Ragweed Sagebrush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Fringed Sagewort
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Silvery Sagewort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Black Sagebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Alpine Sagewort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Big Sagebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Aster
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Aster
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Bahia
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Arrowleaf Balsamroot
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Canada Thistle
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
California Bricklebush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Large-flowered Bricklebush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Small-leaf Bricklebush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Bricklebush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Musk Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower Knapweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower

Chaenactis alpina

Alpine Chaenactis  
Asteraceae Sunflower

Chaenactis douglasii var. alpina

Alpine Chaenactis  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Douglas' Chaenactis
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Esteve's Chaenactis
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Sand Aster
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Chamaechaenactis scaposa Fullstem  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Hawkweed
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Hawkweed
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Low Rabbitbrush, Chamisa
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Rubber Rabbitbrush, Chamisa
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Parry's Rabbitbrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Sticky Rabbitbrush
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Chicory
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Arizona Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower Canada Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower
Arizona Thistle
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Alpine Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower
New Mexican Thistle
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Parry's Thistle
 
Asteraceae Sunflower
Meadow Thistle
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Alpine Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower Tracy's Thistle  
Asteraceae Sunflower Gray Hawksbeard  
Asteraceae Sunflower Western Hawksbeard  
Asteraceae Sunflower Saw-toothed Hawksbeard  
Asteraceae Sunflower Bigelow's Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Gray Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Orange Sneezeweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Sticky Brittlebush
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Sticky Brittlebush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rubber Rabbitbrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Parry's Rabbitbrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Sticky Rabbitbrush  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Abajo Daisy

With 25 species on this web site, the Erigeron genus is second to the 28 Astragalus species. Penstemon and Eriogonum each have 15.

Asteraceae
Sunflower
Rayless Fleabane
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Silvery Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Erigeron bellidiastrum Pretty Daisy  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Gray Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Colorado/New Mexico Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Composite Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Hairy Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Coulter's Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Spreading Fleabane
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Eaton's Daisy  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Tall Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Splendid Daisy (Fleabane)
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Whiplash Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Beautiful Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Glacier Daisy (Fleabane)  
Asteraceae Sunflower Large-flowered Daisy (Fleabane)  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rockslide Daisy  
Asteraceae Sunflower Lance-leaf Daisy  
Asteraceae Sunflower Blackheaded Daisy  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Wandering Daisy
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Cut-leaved Daisy (Fleabane)  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Beautiful Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Showy Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Showy Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Tracy's Daisy (Fleabane)  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Utah Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Engelmann's Aster
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Aster
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Euphrosyne acerosa Copperweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Blanketflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Cut-leaf Blanketflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Arizona Gumweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Gumweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Hairy Gumweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Curly Gumweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Lone Mesa Snakeweed
This is a new species that
Peggy Lyon and I discovered.
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Small Head Snakeweed
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Broom Snakeweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Small Head Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Parry's Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Five-nerved Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Common Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Goldeneye
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Waxy Aster  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Dwarf Golden Aster
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Hairy Golden Aster
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Zion Golden Aster
 
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Fendler's Hawkweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Woolly Hawkweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Threadleaf Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Wild Cosmos
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Old Man of the Mountains  
Asteraceae Sunflower Orange Sneezeweed  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Many-flowered Jimmyweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Rusbyi's Jimmyweed
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Ox-eye Daisy
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Weber separates Senecio into
Ligularia, Packera, and Senecio. Ligularia is used by few other botanists.
Asteraceae
Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Large-flowered Rushpink
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Large-flowered Rushpink
 
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Rush-like Rushpink
 
Asteraceae Sunflower

Machaeranthera bigelovii

Bigelow's Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Gray Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Colorado Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower Desert Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Wild Tarragon  
Asteraceae Sunflower Parry's Goldenweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Oxytenia acerosa Copperweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower

Packera crocata

Saffron Packera  
Asteraceae Sunflower Two Leaf Groundsel  
Asteraceae Sunflower Mancos Shale Packera This is a new species that
Betty and I discovered.
Asteraceae Sunflower Many-lobed Packera  
Asteraceae Sunflower New Mexico Groundsel  
Asteraceae Sunflower Egg Packera  
Asteraceae Sunflower Streambank Packera  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rocky Mountain Groundsel  
Asteraceae
Sunflower
Werner's Groundsel
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Lemonscent  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rock Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Spiny Sagebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Basin Daisy  
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower Paper Flower  
Asteraceae Sunflower Goldenweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rhaponticum repens Russian Knapweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Golden Glow  
Asteraceae Sunflower Golden Glow  
Asteraceae Sunflower Old Man of the Mountains  
Asteraceae Sunflower Desert Mule's Ears  
Asteraceae Sunflower Schkuhria multiflora Threadleaf  
Asteraceae Sunflower Viper Grass  
Asteraceae Sunflower Showy Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Holm's Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Black-tipped Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Nodding Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Thick-leaf Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Lonely Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Thread-leaf Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Fremont's Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Fremont's Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Lamb's Tongue Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Serrated Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Broom Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Triangular Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Wooton's Ragwort  
Asteraceae Sunflower Sagebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Sagebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rocky Mountain Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Dwarf Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Simple Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Velvet Goldenrod  
Asteraceae Sunflower Ring Grass  
Asteraceae Sunflower Stephanomeria exigua var. exigua Whiteplume Wirelettuce  
Asteraceae Sunflower Few-flowered Wirelettuce  
Asteraceae Sunflower Slender-leaf Wirelettuce  
Asteraceae Sunflower Heather Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Sickle Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Symphyotrichum foliaceum variety canbyi Leafy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Symphyotrichum spathulatum Spatula Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Taraxacum eriophorum Alpine Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Taraxacum ovinum Alpine Dandelion  
Asteraceae Sunflower Gray Horsebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Cat-claw Horsebrush  
Asteraceae Sunflower Stemless Woolly Base  
Asteraceae Sunflower Perky Sue
 
Asteraceae Sunflower Torrey's Four-nerved Daisy  
Asteraceae Sunflower Pygmy Serpentweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Annual Townsendia  
Asteraceae Sunflower Oyster Bed Townsendia  
Asteraceae Sunflower Easter Daisy  
Asteraceae Sunflower Delicate Townsendia  
Asteraceae Sunflower Rothrock's Townsendia  
Asteraceae Sunflower Common Salsify  
Asteraceae Sunflower Meadow Salsify  
Asteraceae Sunflower    
Asteraceae Sunflower Crownbeard  
Asteraceae Sunflower Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower

Wyethia arizonica

Arizona Mule's Ears  
Asteraceae Sunflower Mule's Ears  
Asteraceae Sunflower Colorado Tansy Aster  
Asteraceae Sunflower Saw-toothed Goldenweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower Woolly Goldenweed  
Asteraceae Sunflower

Ximenesia encelioides

Crownbeard  
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Berberidaceae
Shrubs with yellow wood and inner bark. Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Flowers perfect, regular, in clusters. Sepals and petals similar appearing, commonly each in two sets of three. Stamens 6, pistil 1. Fruits dry or fleshy berry.
Berberidaceae Barberry
Fendler's Barberry
 
Berberidaceae Barberry Barberry  
Berberidaceae Barberry Oregon Grape  
Betulaceae
Shrubs and trees with alternate and simple serrated leaves. Male inflorescence is spreading or pendulous catkin while female inflorescence (on same tree) is in clusters, spikes, or typically, catkins. 2 to many stamens, styles 2. Fruit is a 1-seeded nut. Catkins open at maturity and tiny winged-seeds float on breeze. Dried catkin persists. Alnus incana is very common along streams.
Betulaceae Birch
Alder
 
Betulaceae Birch
Water Birch
 
Betulaceae Birch Water Birch  
Betulaceae Birch Western Hophornbeam  
Boraginaceae

Herbaceous or shrubby. Leaves entire and often hairy. Flowers perfect, regular, often small, single or in clusters, frequently coiled and uncurling as flowers mature. Floral parts commonly in 5s, stamens 5, style 1. Fruits commonly breaking into 4 single-seeded lobes. Identification based on structure of fruit. Family has several very attractive and abundant species. Various Mertensia species are very common in the Rockies.

The Forget-Me-Not Family is also called the Borage Family.

Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not

Cryptantha crassisepala
var. elachantha

Thick-sepal Cat's Eye
 
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Yellow Cryptantha Weber moved many Cryptantha into Oreocarya and this split is now widely accepted.
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not

Cryptantha minima

Little Cat's Eye
 
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not

Cryptantha pterocarya

Winged-nut Cat's Eye
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Cryptantha  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not
Hound's Tongue
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Hackelia floribunda
Hackel's Stickseed
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Fendler's Waterleaf
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Stickseed
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Stickseed
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Redowski's Stickseed  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Fringed Gromwell
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Puccoon
 
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Field Puccoon
 
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Bluebells  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Fringed Bluebells  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Franciscan Bluebells  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Mertensia fusiformis Spindle-rooted Bluebells  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Lance-leaf Bluebells  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not

Nama retrorsum

Howell's Nama  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Yellow Cryptantha Weber moved many Cryptantha into Oreocarya and this split is now widely accepted.
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Little Yellow Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Gray Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Humble Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Marvelous Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Reveal's Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Oreocarya suffruticosa variety pustulosa Shrubby Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Slender Cat's Eye  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Phacelia bakeri Baker's Phacelia  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Crenulated Phacelia  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Glandular Phacelia  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Varied-leaf Phacelia  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Whole Phacelia  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Ives' Phacelia  
Boraginaceae
Forget-Me-Not
Silky Phacelia  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Bristly Popcorn Flower  
Boraginaceae Forget-Me-Not Bristly Popcorn Flower  
Boraginaceae  Forget-Me-Not  Crinklemat  
Brassicaceae

Very large family of annual to perennial herbs or small shrubs, often with pungent, watery juice. Leaves alternate, simple to compound. Flowers perfect, regular (or nearly so), 4 petaled in the form of a cross, 4 sepals, and 6 stamens (outer 2 shorter than other 4). Ovary usually 2 chambered, sometimes 1, with a thin partition. Long and narrow or relatively round fruit typically splits open at maturity. Family includes kale, cabbage, broccoli, and turnips.

"Cruciferae" is an accepted, but infrequently used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family "Cruciferae" not "Brassicaceae".

Brassicaceae Mustard
Wild Alyssum
 
Brassicaceae Mustard Wild Alyssum  
Brassicaceae Mustard Rockcress  
Brassicaceae Mustard
Drummond's Rockcress
 
Brassicaceae Mustard Rockcress  
Brassicaceae Mustard Lemmon's Rockcress  
Brassicaceae Mustard
Rockcress
 
Brassicaceae Mustard
Rockcress
 
Brassicaceae Mustard
Rockcress
 
Brassicaceae Mustard Drummond's Rockcress  
Brassicaceae Mustard Shepherd's Purse  
Brassicaceae Mustard Heartleaf Bittercress  
Brassicaceae Mustard Lens Pod Pepperwort  
Brassicaceae Mustard
Purple Mustard
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Mountain Tansy Mustard
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Blunt Tansy Mustard
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Flixweed
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Spectacle Pod
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Golden Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Brewer's Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Thick-leaf Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Snowbed Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Wedge-leaf Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Fladnitz Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Grass-like Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Spreading Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Showy Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Twisted Draba
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Western Wallflower
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Lens Pod Pepperwort  
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Whitetop  
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Hairy Pod Pepperwort
 
Brassicaceae
Mustard
Western Peppergrass
 
Brassicaceae Mustard African Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard Water Cress  
Brassicaceae Mustard Wild Candytuft  
Brassicaceae Mustard Wild Candytuft  
Brassicaceae Mustard Double Bladderpod  
Brassicaceae Mustard Fendler's Bladderpod  
Brassicaceae Mustard Cushion Bladderpod  
Brassicaceae Mustard Straight Bladderpod  
Brassicaceae Mustard Sac-like Bladderpod  
Brassicaceae Mustard Alpine Yellowcress  
Brassicaceae Mustard Flaxleaf Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard Jim Hill Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard Flaxleaf Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard American Smelowsky  
Brassicaceae Mustard American Smelowsky  
Brassicaceae Mustard Prince's Plume  
Brassicaceae Mustard Little Twistflower  
Brassicaceae Mustard Heartleaf Twistflower  
Brassicaceae Mustard African Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard Durango Tumble Mustard  
Brassicaceae Mustard Entire-leaf Thelypody  
Brassicaceae Mustard Loose-flowered Thelypody  
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Cactaceae
Perennial succulent or herbaceous. Distinctive fleshy flattened, cylindric, or globose stems; leaves modified to be needle-like spines; areoles give rise to tiny sharp hairs, spines, branches, or flowers. Flowers perfect, regular, often bright and large with many overlapping petals and sepals. Numerous attractive stamens; 1 often massive style. Fruit (often edible and choice) is a dry or fleshy many-seeded berry. Identification of species often based on vegetative rather than floral features and sometimes difficult because plants hybridize. Several species of several genera are quite common at lower altitudes.
Cactaceae Cactus
Missouri Pincushion
 
Cactaceae Cactus
Pincushion Cactus
 
Cactaceae Cactus
Cholla
 
Cactaceae Cactus
Cholla
 
Cactaceae
Cactus
Fendler's Hedgehog Cactus
 
Cactaceae
Cactus
Claret Cup Cactus,
Hedgehog Cactus
 
Cactaceae
Cactus
Missouri Pincushion  
Cactaceae
Cactus
Pincushion Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Potato Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Prickly Pear Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus
Prickly Pear Cactus
 
Cactaceae Cactus Simpson's Pincushion Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Fishhook Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Gray Fishhook Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Mesa Verde Fishhook Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Fishhook Cactus  
Cactaceae Cactus Fishhook Cactus  
Calochortaceae

Weber's Calochortaceae is included in Liliaceae by other botanists.

Campanulaceae
Herbs, usually with milky juice. Leaves alternate and simple. Bell-shaped regular or irregular, usually perfect flowers, 5-lobed with 5 sepals, 5 stamens, 1 style. Fruit is a capsule. Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) very common and very well known.
Campanulaceae Bellflower Parry's Harebell  
Campanulaceae Bellflower Harebell  
Cannabaceae Tree, shrub, or erect or twining perennial herb; wind pollinated; epidermis with stiff hairs; leaves with petioles, simple, unlobed or palmately lobed or compound; inflorescence parts 4-6, free or fused, superior ovary, 2 slender, plumose stigmas; Fruit is a drupe or achene.
Cannabaceae Hemp Hackberry  
Capparaceae
Cleome, Cleomella, and Peritoma are now in Cleomaceae, but Capparaceae still is an accepted family.
Caprifoliaceae
Shrub, woody vine, or small tree with opposite leaves that are simple or compound. Flowers regular or irregular, perfect, arranged in clusters, with 5 petals fused into a trumpet-like shape, 4 or 5 lobed. 4 or 5 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule. Several genera are very common and well-known. Snowberry (Symphoricarpos spp.) covers extensive acreage under Aspens; Honeysuckle is known across the country.
Caprifoliaceae
Honeysuckle
Twinberry
 
Caprifoliaceae
Honeysuckle
Twinberry  
Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle Snowberry  
Caprifoliaceae Honeysuckle Snowberry  
Caryophyllaceae

Large family of annual or perennial herbs with opposite, entire, simple leaves arising from swollen node. Flowers usually perfect, regular, with 4-5 or no petals, 4 or 5 sepals; 4-10 stamens -- often twice the number of sepals, 1 pistil. 1, 3, or 5-chambered capsule fruit. Many very common plants ranging from Chickweeds (Cerastium and others) to Moss campion (Silene acaulis).

Weber places some Caryophyllaceae in Alsinaceae.

Caryophyllaceae Pink
Chickweed, Stitchwort
 
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
 
Caryophyllaceae Pink Woolly Chickweed Weber places Arenaria in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae Pink Mouse-eared Chickweed  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Mouse-eared Chickweed  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Ball Head Sandwort
Weber places Eremogone in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Fendler's Sandwort
Weber places Eremogone in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
King's Sandwort
 
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Drummond's Catchfly
 
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Alpine Sandwort
 
Caryophyllaceae Pink Large-flower Sandwort  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Alpine Sandwort
Weber places Minuartia in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae
Pink
Red Sandwort  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Large-leaf Sandwort  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Tuber Starwort Weber places Pseudostellaria
  in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae Pink Moss Campion  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Sleepy Catchfly  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Drummond's Catchfly  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Menzies' Catchfly  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Sand Spurrey Weber places Spergularia in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae Pink Woolly Chickweed  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Colorado Starwort Weber places Stellaria in Alsinaceae.
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Long-leaf Starwort  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Long-stalked Starwort  
Caryophyllaceae
Pink Umbrella Starwort  
Caryophyllaceae Pink Red Sandwort  
Celastraceae
Shrubs with alternate or opposite leaves, simple. Flowers perfect, regular, inconspicuous with 4 or 5 sepals and petals, 4 or 5 or 8-10 stamens and usually 1 pistil. Fruit a capsule. Mountain Lover (Paxistima myrsinites) is a common, but usually unnoticed, ground-cover.
Celastraceae Staff-tree Mountain Lover  
Chenopodiaceae
Chenopodiaceae has been dissolved and most genera are now in Amaranthaceae.
Cleomaceae Annual, perennial herb, shrub, often ill-smelling. Leaf: generally 1-palmate, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules generally minute, often bristle-like or hairy; leaflets 0 or 3–7. Inflorescence: raceme, head, or flowers 1, expanded in fruit; bracts generally 3-parted below, simple above, or 0. Flower:generally bisexual, radial to ± bilateral; sepals generally 4, free or fused, generally persistent; petals generally 4, free, ± clawed; stamens generally 6, free, exserted, anthers generally coiling at dehiscence; ovary superior, generally on stalk-like receptacle, chamber generally 1, placentas generally 2, parietal, style 1, persistent, stigma generally minute, ± head-like. Fruit: 2 nutlets or generally capsule, septicidal; valves generally 2, deciduous, leaving septum (frame-like placentas) behind; pedicel generally ± reflexed to spreading. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Cleomaceae Cleome
Yellow Beeplant
 
Cleomaceae Cleome
Rocky Mountain
Bee Plant
 
Cleomaceae Cleome
Palmer's Bee Plant
 
Cleomaceae Cleome Yellow Beeplant  
Cleomaceae Cleome Rocky Mountain
Bee Plant
 
Clusiaceae

See Hypericaceae.

Commelinaceae
Herbaceous perennials. Leaves alternate, narrow, distinctly parallel-veined. Flowers perfect, showy, parts in 3s. Stamens 6 in 2 series, style 1. Seeds small. Exotic Spiderwort (Tradescantia occidentalis) is always a treat to find.
Commelinaceae Spiderwort Dayflower  
Commelinaceae Spiderwort Spiderwort  
Convallariaceae
Weber's Convallariaceae is included in Liliaceae or Asparagaceae by other botanists.
Convolvulaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, vines, or shrubs. Leaves simple or compound, alternate, entire or lobed. Funnel-shaped flowers are solitary or in groups. 5 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit is a capsule with one to several seeds. Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is known to anyone who has ever looked at the ground.
Convolvulaceae Morning Glory
Bindweed
 
Cornaceae
Shrubs and small trees as well as herbs with entire or serrate, simple, opposite or whorled leaves with obvious veins. Flowers regular, perfect or imperfect, usually white, with 4 or 5 showy, small, or non-existent sepals and 4 or 5 small or distinct petals. Fruit is a drupe with 1 or 2 seeds. Red-osier Dogwood (Cornus alba) is very common along streambanks.
Cornaceae Dogwood Red-Osier Dogwood  
Cornaceae Dogwood Red-Osier Dogwood  
Crassulaceae
Perennials and annuals, succulent. Alternate or opposite, simple, fleshy leaves. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, in clusters or solitary. 4 or 5 sepals separate or united, 4 or 5 separate petals. Stamens 4, 8, or 10; pistils 4 or 5. Fruit a follicle. Sedum lanceolatum is widespread and found from foothills to alpine.
Crassulaceae Stonecrop
Yellow Stonecrop
 
Crassulaceae Stonecrop
Yellow Stonecrop
 
Crassulaceae Stonecrop
Rose Crown, Queen's Crown
 
Crassulaceae Stonecrop King's Crown  
Crassulaceae Stonecrop Rose Crown, Queen's Crown  
Crossosomataceae Shrub, small tree. Stem: generally glabrous; branchlets or twigs generally thorny. Leaf: generally deciduous, simple, generally small, generally alternate, entire; stipules minute or 0. Inflorescence: flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium short; sepals, petals generally 5(3–6), free; petals generally white, ephemeral; stamens 4–50, on or around disk; pistils 1–9, simple, styles short, stigmas head-like, ovules generally 2–many. Fruit: follicles, 1–9. Seed: brown to black. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Crossosomataceae
Crossosoma
Greasebush
 
Crossosomataceae
Crossosoma
Greasebush  
Cupressaceae

Ancient family. Shrubs or trees commonly resinous and aromatic. Leaves are evergreen, overlapping scale-like, or needle-like. Male cones are small; female cones with 1 to several seeds are much larger and dry or fleshy at maturity. Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum) is widespread through the Rockies. Junipers are commonly and incorrectly called "Cedars". True Cedars, the genus Cedrus, are actually in the Pine Family. Cedar fence posts, cedar chests, and cedar firewood are all actually Juniper.

The family is sometimes also called Cedar Family but it is not related to Cedars.

Cupressaceae
Cypress
Common Juniper
 
Cupressaceae Cypress

Sabina deppeana

Alligator Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress One-seed Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress Utah Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress Rocky Mountain Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress

Juniperus deppeana

Alligator Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress One-seed Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress Utah Juniper  
Cupressaceae Cypress Rocky Mountain Juniper  
Cypripediaceae

Weber's Cypripediaceae is included in Orchidaceae by other botanists.

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Cystopteridaceae Bladder Fern
Brittle Fern
 
Cystopteridaceae Bladder Fern
Reeves' Brittle Fern
 
Dennstaedtiaceae These ferns mostly grow on land in moist forests. Stems are short-to-long creeping and are usually hairy. Leaves are mostly monomorphic with a pinnate blade that can be glabrous or hairy. The sori are near or at the blade margin. This is primarily a tropical family with about 400 species world-wide.
Dennstaedtiaceae Bracken Bracken Fern  
Dryopteridaceae This is a rock and ground growing fern with creeping or erect stems and pinnate  leaves that can be monomorphic or dimorphic (monomorphic in our area). Sori are on the veins in our area but may in other areas be at the vein tips. This is a very large fern family with 60 genera and over 3,000 species world wide.
Dryopteridaceae
Wood Fern
Male Fern
 
Dryopteridaceae Wood Fern Holly Fern  
Elaeagnaceae
Shrub or trees, commonly thorny, with simple leaves coated with very showy scales or hairs (observable with a hand lens). Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, small but clustered in large numbers. Perianth 4-lobed. 4-8 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit is hard dry seed enclosed in often edible fleshy growth which provides significant food for birds, bears, raccoons. Several family members, such as, Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), are moisture loving.
Elaeagnaceae
Oleaster
Russian Olive
 
Elaeagnaceae Oleaster Silver Buffaloberry  
Elaeagnaceae Oleaster Canada Buffaloberry  
Elaeagnaceae Oleaster Round Leaf Buffaloberry  
Ephedraceae Dioecious shrubs of a single genus; branches green to olive green, opposite or whorled; leaves scalelike, opposite or whorled; seeds angled to terete. Very common in high desert.
Ephedraceae
Ephedra
Cutler's Mormon Tea
 
Ephedraceae
Ephedra
Torrey's Mormon Tea
 
Ephedraceae
Ephedra
Green Mormon Tea
 
Equisetaceae
One of the most ancient land plants. Perennial, stems annual or perennial, typically hollow, jointed, ribbed. Leaves small and scale-like. Spores numerous. Horsetails (Equisetum arvense) are common from lower foothills to mid-montane.
Equisetaceae
Horsetail
Field Horsetails
 
Equisetaceae
Horsetail
Scouring Rush  
Equisetaceae
Horsetail
Equisetum laevigatum Smooth Scouring Rush  
Equisetaceae
Horsetail
Scouring Rush
 
Ericaceae

Shrubby or herbaceous perennials, evergreen or deciduous, often leathery leaves. Flowers often waxy, fragrant, perfect, regular or irregular, in terminal clusters. 4 or 5 petals and sepals, 8- 10 stamens, 1 pistil. Fruit a capsule or berry. Plants often in small patches. Single delight (Moneses uniflora) is indeed a delight to find. Several species are very common and very well known: Kinnikinick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and Blueberry (Vaccinium spp). The latter rarely produces fruit in our area. The Heath Family is found in mountain regions around the world.

Ericaceae includes all former species in Pyrolaceae.

Ericaceae Heath
Manzanita
 
Ericaceae Heath
Kinnikinick, Bear Berry
 
Ericaceae Heath Single Delight  
Ericaceae Heath One-sided Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath Pinedrops  
Ericaceae Heath Pink Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath Green-flowered Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath Small Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath Variegated Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath Pink Wintergreen  
Ericaceae Heath

Vaccinium myrtillus

Blueberry Ubiquitous ground cover in Spruce forests.
Euphorbiaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees. Some members have stems containing an irritating or poisonous milky sap. Leaves simple or in 3s. Flowers imperfect, petals distinct or commonly lacking. Stamens 1 to many, pistil 1. Fruit usually a 2 or 3-valved capsule. Several species very common at low elevations. Shorthorn spurge (Euphorbia lurida) is found from low to montane elevations. The family has evolved very unusual floral characteristics.
Euphorbiaceae Spurge Shorthorn Spurge  
Euphorbiaceae Spurge
Fendler's Spurge
 
Euphorbiaceae Spurge Carved Seed Spurge  
Euphorbiaceae Spurge
Thyme-leaf Spurge
 
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Fabaceae

Members of this very large, diverse family are typically perennial herbs with alternate, compound leaves and distinctive flowers commonly comprised of an upper, somewhat vertical, enlarged petal (banner), 2 side petals (wings), and 2 partially fused lower petals (keel) between the wings. Fruits are usually legumes with 2 alternate rows of seeds. Roots commonly with numerous tiny nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria. This is the family of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa); Astragalus (Astragalus alpinus) -- one of the largest genera of all plants; Lupines (Lupinus argenteus); and Clovers (Trifolium pratense). Some legumes are edible; some, such as the selenium absorbing Astragalus, are poisonous -- and known as "Locoweed".

"Leguminosae" is an accepted, but infrequently used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family "Leguminosae" not "Fabaceae". The Pea Family is also known as the Bean or Legume Family.

Fabaceae
Pea
Deer Vetch
 
Fabaceae Pea
a
 
Fabaceae Pea
With 28 species, the Astragalus genus is the most numerous on this web site. 
Erigeron has 25 and Penstemon and Eriogonum each have 15.
Fabaceae Pea
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea    
Fabaceae Pea
 
Fabaceae Pea
a
Astragalus are commonly known as Vetch, Milkvetch, Locoweed, or Pea.
Fabaceae
Pea

Dalea candida var. oligophylla

Silvery Dalea
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Wild Licorice
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Northern Chainpod
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Western Chainpod
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Lanszwert's Sweetpea  
Fabaceae
Pea
Peavine
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Utah Sweetpea
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Deer Vetch
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Silvery Lupine
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Short-stemmed Lupine
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Lupinus caespitosus Matted Lupine  
Fabaceae
Pea
King's Lupine
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Choke-cherry Lupine
 
Fabaceae
Pea
Small Lupine
 
Fabaceae Pea Black Medic  
Fabaceae Pea Alfalfa  
Fabaceae Pea Yellow Sweet Clover  
Fabaceae Pea White Sweet Clover  
Fabaceae Pea Sain Foin  
Fabaceae Pea Alpine Reclining Locoweed  
Fabaceae Pea Silky Reclining Locoweed  
Fabaceae Pea Lambert's Locoweed  
Fabaceae Pea Parry's Locoweed  
Fabaceae Pea Indian Breadroot  
Fabaceae Pea Robinia neomexicana New Mexico Locust  
Fabaceae Pea Silvery Sophora  
Fabaceae Pea Mountain Golden Banner  
Fabaceae Pea Golden Banner  
Fabaceae Pea Rocky Mountain Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Brandegee's Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Shaggy Leaf Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Holly leaf Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Long-stalked Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Dwarf Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Parry's Trifolium  
Fabaceae Pea Red Clover  
Fabaceae Pea White Clover  
Fabaceae Pea American Vetch  
Fagaceae
Deciduous trees or shrubs with alternate, lobed leaves. Flowers imperfect but on same plant. Male flowers in long, slender catkins; female flowers solitary or in threes at twig tips. Fruit is a nut, an acorn. Gambel's Oak (Quercus gambelii), found throughout the Southwest, is highly variable in leaf shape, height, etc., probably because of hybridization.
Fagaceae Beech

Quercus gambelii

Gambel's Oak The Beech Family is also
known as the Oak Family.
Fagaceae Beech Sonoran
Live Oak
 
Frankeniaceae
Frankenia
Frankenia
 
Fumariaceae
APG places this family in Papaveraceae (Poppy Family). Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs with watery juice. Leaves alternate, compound. Flowers perfect, irregular. Sepals 2, petals 4 (in two dissimilar pairs with a spur or hood on one or both of outer pair), stamens 6 , pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Easily mistaken for Peas. Corydalis (C. aurea and C. caseana) are uncommon to rare but so distinctive that they are easy to identify.
Fumariaceae Fumitory
Golden Corydalis
 
Fumariaceae Fumitory
Case's Corydalis
 
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Gentianaceae
Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, stems smooth, leaves usually opposite or whorled, simple, entire. Flowers perfect, regular, solitary or in clusters, often tubular. Calyx 2-5 lobed, corolla 4 or 5 lobed. Stamens 4 or 5 alternating with corolla lobes. Pistil 1. Fruit a 2-valved capsule. This is a small family with many showy and well-known species in the U.S. and world-wide. Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis thermalis) is a favorite of many flower lovers.
Gentianaceae Gentian
Siberian Gentian
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
White-margined Frasera
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Utah Frasera
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Monument Plant
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Arctic Gentian
 
Gentianaceae Gentian Bottle Gentian  
Gentianaceae Gentian Parry's Mountain Gentian  
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Siberian Gentian  
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Little Gentian
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Little Gentian
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Arctic Gentian
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Little Fringed Gentian
 
Gentianaceae
Gentian
Fringed Gentian
 
Gentianaceae Gentian Bottle Gentian  
Gentianaceae Gentian Mountain Gentian  
Gentianaceae Gentian Star Gentian  
Geraniaceae
Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves usually have a distinct smell, opposite or alternate, simple or often compound. Showy flowers perfect, mostly regular, with 5 sepals and petals. Stamens 5 or 10, pistil 1. Fruit is usually long and narrow (like a Crane's bill), dry with 1 seed per chamber curling upon opening. Showy flowers, large leaves, and distinctive seed pods make these plants fairly easy to identify. Wild Geranium (Geranium richardsonii) is very common over a broad range of altitudes; Filaree (Erodium cicutarium), at one time considered non-native, is even more widely distributed.
Geraniaceae
Geranium
Filaree
 
Geraniaceae
Geranium
Wild Purple Geranium
 
Geraniaceae
Geranium
Wild Geranium
 
Geraniaceae
Geranium
Sticky Geranium
 
Grossulariaceae

Shrubs with or without bristles, alternate and usually palmately lobed leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, 5-parted and arranged in clusters at ends of branches. Fruits are fleshy and berry-like and almost always tasty. Mountain currant (Ribes montigenum) profusely flowers and produces large crops of berries.

Also called Gooseberry Family and placed in Saxifrage Family by some botanists.

Grossulariaceae Gooseberry
Golden Currant The Gooseberry Family is also
known as the Currant Family.
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Wax Currant  
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Colorado Currant  
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Whiskey Currant  
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Trailing Currant  
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Mountain Currant  
Grossulariaceae Gooseberry Wolf's Currant  
Helleboraceae
Weber's Helleboraceae is included in Ranunculaceae by other botanists.
Hippuridaceae
Mare's Tail is now in Plantaginaceae.
Hydrangeaceae
Mostly shrubs with opposite leaves and showy, fragrant, white flowers with parts in fours. Fruits persistent and evident. Cliff Fendlerbush (Fendlera rupicola) turns the foothills snowy white in late May.
Hydrangeaceae
Hydrangea
Cliff Fendler Bush
 
Hydrangeaceae Hydrangea Mock Orange  
Hydrophyllaceae
Genetic research shows that Hydrophyllaceae should be in Boraginaceae. Silky phacelia (Phacelia sericea), Crenulated Phacelia (Phacelia crenulata) and other Hydrophyllaceae are now in Boraginaceae.
Hypericaceae Annual to shrub [tree]. Leaf: cauline, simple, opposite or whorled, often gland-dotted; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or flower 1, terminal or axillary. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals persistent, generally 5, often fused at base, overlapping; petals generally 5, free; stamens generally many, free or ± fused into 3–5 clusters; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1–3[5], placentas generally axile, style branches 3. Fruit: capsule, generally septicidal. Seed: many, small. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Hypericaceae St. Johnswort
St. Johnswort
 
Hypericaceae
St. Johnswort St. Johnswort  
Iridaceae
Rhizomatous herbs. Leaves mainly basal, linear. Flowers showy, solitary or few. Perianth segments 6, stamens 3, style branches 3. Fruit a large capsule. Missouri iris (Iris missouriensis) fills snow-watered meadows with delicate blue.
Iridaceae
Iris
Wild Iris
 
Iridaceae Iris Blue-eyed Grass  
Juncaginaceae Perennial herbs of marshes and wet meadows. Leaves linear. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, in a spike. Floral parts in 6s. Fruit a capsule. Arrowgrass (Triglochin maritima) can be abundant in marshy areas.
 Juncaginaceae  Arrowgrass Arrowgrass  
Lamiaceae

Often aromatic annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, usually with square stems. Leaves simple, opposite (rarely whorled). Flowers perfect, mostly irregular, in clusters. 5 fused petals and sepals . Stamens 4, pistil 1. Fruits are multi-capsuled. Plants often aromatic and showy. Beebalm (Monarda fistulosa) is often grown as a garden plant and numerous species (peppermint, basil, thyme, marjoram, oregano) flavor our cooking.

"Labiatae" is an accepted, but rarely used, alternate name for this family.  Stanley Welsh (author of A Utah Flora) calls this family"Labiatae" not "Lamiaceae".

Lamiaceae Mint Giant Hyssop  
Lamiaceae Mint Wild Basil  
Lamiaceae
Mint
Dragonhead
 
Lamiaceae
Mint
Pennyroyal
 
Lamiaceae Mint Marrubium vulgare Horehound  
Lamiaceae Mint Mint  
Lamiaceae Mint Aromatic Little Monarda  
Lamiaceae Mint Gray Mint  
Lamiaceae Mint Self-heal  
Lamiaceae Mint Skullcap  
Lentibulariaceae
Herbaceous, aquatic, often carnivorous perennials. Leaves typically submerged, finely divided with bladders that trap microscopic aquatic animals such as Paramecium. Flowers perfect, irregular, few to many in clusters. Calyx 2-lobed, corolla of 5 united petals. Stamens 2, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza) adds a bright touch of yellow to pond shallows.
Lentibulariaceae Bladderwort Greater Bladderwort  
Lentibulariaceae Bladderwort Lesser Bladderwort  
Liliaceae

A large family of mostly herbaceous plants of diverse structure and habitats. Flowers are showy and 3-parted (3 petals, 3 petal-like sepals, and 6 stamens). Leaves are fleshy with veins running parallel from tip to base. Fruit is a 3-part capsule or berry.

Because of genetic research, some Liliaceae have been moved to Alliaceae, Melanthiaceae, Ruscaceae, and Themidaceae.

For Allium see Alliaceae.

For Anticlea Toxicoscordion, and Veratrum see Melanthiaceae.

For Maianthemum see Rusaceae.

For Androstephium and Triteleia see Themidaceae.

Liliaceae
Lily
Flexible Sego Lily

Weber places Calochortus
in Calochortaceae.

  Liliaceae   
Lily
Gunnison's Sego Lily  
Liliaceae
Lily
Nuttall's Sego Lily  
Liliaceae
Lily
Glacier Lily
 
Liliaceae
Lily
Chocolate Lily
 
Liliaceae
Lily
Wood Lily
 
Liliaceae
Lily
Alp Lily
 
Liliaceae

Lily
Fairybells Weber places Prosartes and
Streptopus
in Uvulariaceae.
Liliaceae
Lily
Twistedstalk  
Linaceae
APG places this family in Liliaceae (Lily Family). Annual or perennial herbs. Represented in our area by a single genus (Linum). Leaves alternate, simple. Flowers perfect, regular, 5-parted petals and sepals attached directly to flower stalk. 5-10 fertile stamens and a pistil with 5-10 styles. Blue Flax (Linum lewisii), discovered by Meriwether Lewis, is a delicately beautiful plant found widely through the West. Blue Flax flowers open early and, depending on the sun or shade, fall by midday.
Linaceae Flax Blue Flax  
Linaceae
Flax
Flax
 
Linaceae Flax Blue Flax  
Linaceae Flax Yellow Flax  
Linaceae Flax Utah Yellow Flax  
Linnaeaceae

APG places this family in Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family). Subshrub [to small tree]. Leaf: opposite, simple [compound]; stipules generally 0. Flower: calyx tube fused to ovary, limb generally 5-lobed; corolla radial [or bilateral], rotate to cylindric, generally 5-lobed; stamens generally 4 inserted at 2 levels, epipetalous, alternate corolla lobes; ovary inferior, 1–5-chambered, style 1. Fruit: achene or capsule, 1-seeded. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Linnaeaceae Twinflower Linnaeus' Twinflower  
Loasaceae

Annual, perennial, or shrubby plants with barbed, Velcro-like hairs. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire or lobed. Flower regular, perfect, solitary or in clusters. 4-5 sepals and petals, stamens 5 to many , style 1. Fruit a capsule with one to many seeds. Often showy and lovely flowers are night-blooming. Blazing Star (Mentzelia multiflora) can be several feet tall with numerous, showy flowers. Dead, straw-colored plants stand for months.

Also called Blazing Star or Stickleaf Family.

Loasaceae Loasa

White-Stemmed Mentzelia  
Loasaceae Loasa Hard Seed Mentzelia  
Loasaceae Loasa Mentzelia rusbyi Rusby's Mentzelia  
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Malvaceae
Herbs or shrubs, usually hairy, annual biennial, or perennial with mucilaginous juice. Leaves alternate, simple, mostly palmately veined. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular. solitary or in clusters. 5 sepals and petals. Fruit a capsule. Some species at low elevations often carpet the ground. Checker mallows (Sidalcea spp.) at higher elevations are tall and showy wetland plants. Cotton, okra, and marsh mallows come now, or originally, from this family.
Malvaceae
Mallow
Wild Hollyhock
 
Malvaceae Mallow Cheeseweed  
Malvaceae Mallow White Checkermallow  
Malvaceae Mallow Pink Checkermallow  
Malvaceae Mallow Scarlet Globe Mallow  
Malvaceae Mallow Large Leaf Globe Mallow  
Malvaceae Mallow Narrow Leaf Globe Mallow  
Malvaceae Mallow Triangular Leaf Globe Mallow  
Melanthiaceae

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal. (From Jepson eFlora.) 

Melanthiaceae is a small family made up of former Liliaceae.

Melanthiaceae False Hellebore
Mountain Death Camas
 
Melanthiaceae False Hellebore Foothills Death Camas  
Melanthiaceae
False Hellebore Corn Lily  
Menyanthaceae
Plants aquatic or semi-aquatic with thick rhizomes. Flowers perfect, regular, in clusters. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens 5, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule with smooth, shining seeds. Marsh trefoil (Menyanthes trifoliata) produces floating masses of leaves and exotic, fringed flowers.
Menyanthaceae Buckbean Buckbean  
Monotropaceae
See Ericaceae.
Montiaceae

Annual to perennial herb; generally fleshy. Stem: 1–many, generally glabrous. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal; cyme, raceme, panicle, umbel, or flower 1. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals generally 2(9), free; petals (1)2–19, free or ± fused; stamens 1–many, epipetalous or not, anthers pink, rose, or yellow; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules 1–many, placenta basal or free-central; styles (0)1–8, generally fused at base, branched. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 2–3-valved. Seed: 1–many, shiny or ± pebbly or sculptured, black or gray, generally with oil-filled appendage as food for ants. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Montiaceae is made up of former Portulacaceae.

Montiaceae Miner's Lettuce
Spring Beauty
 
Montiaceae Miner's Lettuce
Alpine Spring Beauty
 
Montiaceae Miner's Lettuce

Nevads Bitterroot, Lewesia

 
Montiaceae Miner's Lettuce Pygmy Bitterroot, Lewesia  
Montiaceae Miner's Lettuce

Phemeranthus brevifolius
Talinum brevifolium

Canyonlands Rockpink  
Nyctaginaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, often with stems swollen at the nodes; leaves simple, usually opposite. Flowers often tubular, perfect, regular, stamens 1 to many, pistil 1. Fruit 1-seeded, often winged nutlet. Very showy Four O'Clocks (Mirabilis multiflora) are a relatively common southwest species.
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock Sand Verbena  
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock
Trailing Windmills
 
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock Narrow-leaf Four O'Clocks  
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock Showy Four O'Clocks  
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock Trailing Four O'Clocks  
Nyctaginaceae Four O'Clock Narrow-leaf Four O'Clocks  
Oleaceae Perennial herb to tree [vine], hairs 0 or peltate or not; rarely dioecious. Leaf: simple to odd-pinnately compound, alternate or generally opposite, deciduous or evergreen; stipules 0. Inflorescence: various; flowers >= 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; calyx generally minute (0), tube cup-shaped, lobes 4–15; petals (0)4–6(8), generally fused; nectar disk often present; stamens (0)2(4–5), epipetalous; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 2, each 2–4 ovuled, placenta axile, style 1, stigma generally 2-lobed.Fruit: drupe, capsule, or winged achene. Seed: 1 per chamber. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Oleaceae
Olive
Desert Olive
 
Oleaceae
Olive
Single Leaf Ash
 
Onagraceae
Herbs or rarely woody. Leaves alternate, opposite, often in basal clusters. Flowers perfect. Sepals and petals 4 or 2. Stamens as many or twice as many as the petals. Fruit a capsule, nut, or berry. Not true Primroses (Primulaceae). Very showy white or yellow long-flowering plants from hot, dry foothills to moist montane meadows. Pollinated by night-flying moths. Evening primrose (Oenothera caespitosa) is very common and showy.
Onagraceae Evening Primrose    
Onagraceae Evening Primrose    
Onagraceae Evening Primrose    
Onagraceae Evening Primrose
Fireweed
 
Onagraceae Evening Primrose
Alpine Fireweed
 
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Chylismia scapoidea ssp. scapoidea Leafless Bee Blossom  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Chylismia walkeri ssp. walkeri Walker's Bee Blossom  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Alpine Willowherb  
Onagraceae
Evening Primrose
Fringed Willowherb
 
Onagraceae
Evening Primrose
Hornemann's Willowherb
 
Onagraceae Evening Primrose

Oenothera albicaulis

White-stemmed Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Matted Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Hooker's Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Yellow Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Oenothera lavandulifolia Sundrops  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Bridges Evening Primrose  
Onagraceae Evening Primrose Pale Evening Primrose  
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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Ophioglossaceae

Spore-bearing plants, considered fern allies, with complex and little understood life cycle. Spend 10 years underground in spore stage in association with mycorrhizal fungi. Emerge as perennials, very small (up to 6 inches tall in some species), living above ground for perhaps 6 years. Leaf uniquely composed of fertile frond (sporophore) and infertile, photosynthesizing trophophore. All Botrychium are considered rare in Colorado -- perhaps because they are so difficult to find. Botrychium echo is the most common species of this family in Colorado Rockies.

Also called Moonwort Family.

Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
Echo Moonwort
 
Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
Western Moonwort
 
Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
Lance-leaf Moonwort
 
Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
Mingan Moonwort
 
Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
New Moon Moonwort
 
Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue
Pinnate Moonwort
 
Orchidaceae
Next to Asteraceae, the largest family world-wide. Mostly tropical family of perennial herbs with tuberous, fibrous or scaly, coral-like rootstocks and entire leaves. Showy flowers are irregular, 3-parted, with similar lateral petals and the mostly dissimilar middle petal (lip) often with a backward-projecting spur. Fruits typically a 3-valved capsule.
Orchidaceae
Orchid Calypso Orchid  
Orchidaceae Orchid
Long-bracted Orchid
 
Orchidaceae Orchid
Spotted Coralroot
 
Orchidaceae Orchid
Striped Coralroot
 
Orchidaceae

Lady's Slipper
Lady's Slipper Orchid
Weber places Cypripedium in Cypripediaceae.
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Giant Helleborine
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Rattlesnake
Plantain Orchid
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Rattlesnake
Plantain Orchid
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Bog Orchid
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Heartleaf Twayblade
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Blunt-leaf Orchid
 
Orchidaceae
Orchid
Heartleaf Twayblade
 
Orchidaceae Orchid Lady's Tresses  
Orobanchaceae

Annual, perennial herb, shrub; often glandular; root-parasites, roots modified into absorptive structures. Stem: generally round in ×-section. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, reduced to ± fleshy scales in non-green plants lacking chlorophyll; stipules generally 0. Inflorescence: spike to panicle, generally bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes 0–5; corolla generally strongly bilateral, generally 2-lipped (upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower lip generally 3-lobed), abaxial lobes outside other lobes in bud; stamens epipetalous, 4 in 2 pairs (sometimes 1 pair sterile), additional staminode 0(1), anther sacs unequal; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas 2–4, parietal, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal, valves 2–4. Seed: many, small, angled; surface smooth or netted. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Recent genetic research has placed Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, and Pedicularis in this family.

Orobanchaceae Broomrape Desert Paintbrush Recent genetic research indicates that Paintbrush (Castilleja spp) should be placed in Orobanchaceae: Paintbrush is often parasitic.
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Hayden's Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Whole-leaf Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Wyoming Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Lineated Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Red Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Western Yellow Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Rose Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Eastwood's Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Northern Yellow Paintbrush  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape
Clubflower
Recent genetic research indicates that Cordylanthus should be placed in Orobanchaceae.
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Cooper's Broomrape  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape
Bundled Broomrape
 
Orobanchaceae Broomrape
Single-flower Broomrape
 
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Yellow Owl-clover Recent genetic research indicates that Orthocarpus should be placed in Orobanchaceae.
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Purple Owl-clover  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Fern Leaf Lousewort Recent genetic research indicates that Pedicularis should be placed in Orobanchaceae. Pedicularis are often parasitic.
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Spring Lousewort  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Elephant Heads  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Alpine Lousewort  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Towering Lousewort  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Parrot's Beak  
Orobanchaceae Broomrape Alpine Lousewort  
Oxalidaceae
Herbs with sour juice (oxalic acid). Leaves in threes. Flowers perfect, regular, solitary or in clusters. Sepals and petals 5, stamens 10, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Sorrel (Oxalis dillenii) is quite uncommon in our area but quite common in other areas of the U.S.
Oxalidaceae Wood Sorrel Yellow Wood Sorrel  
Oxalidaceae Wood Sorrel Violet Wood Sorrel  
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Papaveraceae
Annual or perennial herbs, usually with milky juice. Leaves alternate, opposite, entire, lobed. Flowers regular, perfect, solitary or several in cluster. Stamens few to numerous, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. Paper poppy (Argemone polyanthemos) has large, very showy white flowers and is extending its range.
Papaveraceae Poppy
Prickly Poppy
 
Parnassiaceae

APG places this family in Celastraceae (Staff-tree Family). Perennial herb from caudex or rhizome [annual], generally glabrous, often with ± red marks on leaves, flowers when dry. Stem: scape with generally 1 leaf-like bract [scape 0]. Leaf: simple, basal [cauline], alternate [subopposite], generally petioled, often with ± red marks when dry; veins ± palmate. Inflorescence: 1-flowered [cyme]. Flower: generally bisexual, ± radial; hypanthium minute, free from ovary; calyx lobes generally 5; petals generally 5 [0], free, generally white; stamens generally 5, opposite sepals; staminodes generally 5, alternate stamens, lobes generally present, thread-like to oblong, gland-tipped; pistil 1, ovary superior, chamber ± 1, placentas 4 [3], axile below, parietal above, styles very short, stigmas [3]4. Fruit: [3]4-valved capsule. Seed: many, winged, netted. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Parnassia were formerly in Saxifragaceae.

Parnassiaceae

Grass
of Parnassus
Fringed Grass of Parnassus  
Parnassiaceae Grass
of Parnassus
Small Grass of Parnassus  
Phrymaceae Annual to shrub. Stem: ×-section generally round. Leaf: opposite, simple, entire or toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower: bisexual; calyx radial or ± bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper [1]2-lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit: generally capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal [indehiscent, 1-seeded]. (From Jepson eFlora.)
Phrymaceae Lopseed Eastwood's Monkeyflower Recent genetic research indicates that Mimulus should be placed in Phrymaceae.
Phrymaceae Lopseed Yellow Monkeyflower  
Phrymaceae Lopseed Suksdorf's Monkeyflower  
Phrymaceae Lopseed Tiling's Monkeyflower  
Pinaceae
Ancient family of evergreen trees with scaly bark. Leaves of two kinds: thin and scale-like at the base of short branches and long, green needle-like borne singly or in clusters of 2-5 on spur branches. Male pollen-producing cones are narrow, elongated; female cones similarly shaped but much larger and woody, maturing in 1 or 2 seasons and not falling apart at maturity. All of our Pines are important forest trees for wildlife, human uses, and their beauty. Majestic Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is found throughout the Rockies.
Pinaceae Pine Subalpine Fir  
Pinaceae Pine White Fir  
Pinaceae Pine Engelmann Spruce  
Pinaceae Pine Colorado Blue Spruce  
Pinaceae Pine Lodgepole Pine  
Pinaceae Pine Pinyon Pine  
Pinaceae Pine Limber Pine  
Pinaceae Pine Ponderosa Pine  
Pinaceae Pine Douglas Fir  
Plantaginaceae

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit:generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Recent genetic research indicates that a number of former genera in Scrophulariaceae (Besseya, Chionophila, Collinsia, Linaria, Penstemon, and Veronica) should be placed in Plantaginaceae.

Plantaginaceae Plantain
Alpine Kitten Tails
Recent genetic research indicates that Besseya should be placed in Plantaginaceae not Scrophulariaceae.
Plantaginaceae Plantain
Kitten Tails
 
Plantaginaceae Plantain
Snowlover
Recent genetic research indicates that Chionophila should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Plantaginaceae Plantain
Blue-Eyed Mary
Recent genetic research indicates that Collinsia should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Plantaginaceae Plantain
Mare's Tail
 
Plantaginaceae
Plantain
Butter and Eggs
Recent genetic research indicates that Linaria should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Plantaginaceae
Plantain
Common Butter and Eggs
 
Plantaginaceae
Plantain
Narrow-leaf Penstemon

With ~250 species each, Penstemon and Eriogonum are tied for third as the most numerous genera in North America. Carex has 480 and Astragalus 350.

With 15 species on this web site, the Penstemon genus is tied with Eriogonum for the third most numerous genus. Astragalus
has 28 species and Erigeron 25.

Plantaginaceae Plantain Scarlet Bugler Recent genetic research indicates that Penstemon should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Plantaginaceae Plantain Short Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Crandall's Penstemon Formerly identified here as
P. caespitosus
Plantaginaceae Plantain Penstemon cyanocaulis Blue-stemmed Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Hairy Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Eaton's Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Hall's Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Harbour's Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Thick Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Narrow-leaf Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Bridges Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Rocky Mountain Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Utah Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Whipple's Penstemon  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Plantain  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Woolly Plantain  
Plantaginaceae Plantain American Brookline Recent genetic research indicates that Veronica should be placed in Plantaginaceae.
Plantaginaceae Plantain Veronica  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Veronica  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Thyme-leaf Speedwell  
Plantaginaceae Plantain Veronica  
Polemoniaceae
Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, entire, cut into leaflets or compound. Flowers perfect, solitary or in clusters. Corolla usually 5 united petals, often in showy tubes. Stamens usually 5, pistil 1. Fruit a capsule. The Phlox Family gives us a number of very common and showy plants from Alpine Phlox (Phlox condensata) to montane Jacob's Ladder (Polemonium pulcherrimum) to foothills and montane Scarlet Gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata).
Polemoniaceae Phlox Beautiful Gilia  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Hayden's Gilia  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Sticky Gilia  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Coral Gilia  
Polemoniaceae Phlox
Large-flowered Trumpet
 
Polemoniaceae Phlox
Narrow-leaf Trumpet
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Sparse Starflower
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Hayden's Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Eyed Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Alva Day's Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Scarlet Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Ball-head Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Gunnison's Skyrocket  
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Long-flowered Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Pagosa Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Spreading Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Dwarf Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Coral Ipomopsis
This is a new species that
Betty and I discovered.
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Rosy Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Slender-tubed Skyrocket
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Slender-tubed Phlox
 
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Desert Trumpets
 
Polemoniaceae Phlox Graceful Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Yellow Pincushion  
Polemoniaceae
Phlox
Alva Day's Gilia
 
Polemoniaceae Phlox Southern Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Gray Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Alpine Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Gray Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Long-flower Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Phlox multiflora Many-flower Phlox  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Dense Sky Pilot  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Leafy Jacobs Ladder  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Beautiful Jacobs Ladder  
Polemoniaceae Phlox Sticky Sky Pilot  
Polygalaceae Milkwort Milkwort  
Polygonaceae

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or vines. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite or whorled. Flowers perfect or not, regular. Perianth in 2-6 parts. Species divided into two groups: Knotweeds (5-sepaled flowers in dense clusters) and Buckwheats (6-sepals in whorls of 3 in dense umbels). Fruit a three-sided, hard sunflower-like seed. This family gives us two important food plants: Buckwheat and Rhubarb. American bistort (Bistorta bistortoides) and Sulphur Flower (Eriogonum umbellatum) are very common and showy plants known to all who hike the Rockies.

The Eriogonum genus is, with Penstemon, the largest North American plant genus with about 254 endemic species. Eriogonum range from east central Alaska south to central Mexico and from near-shore islands off the California and Baja California coasts to the Great Plains of central Canada south to central Mexico, the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia and Virginia, and the coastal plains of the southeastern United States from the Carolinas to central Florida. (From James Reveal's key to Polygonaceae.)

The Buckwheat Family is also known as the Knotweed Family.

Polygonaceae Buckwheat
American Bistort
 
Polygonaceae Buckwheat
Alpine Bistort
 
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Winged Buckwheat  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Curved Buckwheat The Flora of North America
has 209 pages of keys and
descriptions for nearly 200
Eriogonum taxa.
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Nodding Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Corymb Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Corymb Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Eriogonum hookeri Hooker's Buckwheat  
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Desert Trumpets
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
James' Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Slender-leaved Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Lance-leaf Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Slender Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Cushion Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Eriogonum palmerianum Palmer's Buckwheat  
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Red-root Buckwheat
 
Polygonaceae
Buckwheat
Sulphur Flower
 
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Mountain Sorrel  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Water Smartweed  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Persicaria lapathifolia Dock-leaf Smartweed  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Persicaria maculosa Spotted Lady's Thumb  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Winged Buckwheat  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Dense-flowered Dock  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Wild Rhubarb  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Flexible Buckwheat  
Polygonaceae Buckwheat Salty Buckwheat  
Polypodiaceae Western
Polypody
Western Polypody  
Portulacaceae

Annual to perennial herb, generally fleshy. Stem: [1]several to many, spreading [to erect], generally glabrous. Leaf: simple, alternate or opposite, linear, obovate, spoon-shaped, [elliptic, ± round], flat or cylindric, hairs in axils, inconspicuous or not [0], upper 2–5 forming involucre. Inflorescence: flowers 1 or clustered at stem tips. Flower: bisexual, radial; sepals 2, fused at base, lower part fused to ovary and generally persistent in fruit; petals [4]5[7], fused at base, forming ring, yellow [magenta, rose, orange, white]; stamens 4–20[> 20], epipetalous or not, anthers yellow; ovary 1/2-inferior, chamber 1, ovules several to many, placenta free-central; style branches [2]3–6[12]. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile. Seed: many, reniform, ± tubercled, black, gray, [brown, ± blue]. (From Jepson eFlora.) 

On the basis of genetic research, Claytonia, Lewisia, and Phemeranthus, formerly in Portulacaceae, have been moved to Montiaceae.

Portulacaceae Purslane
Family
Purslane or Portulaca  
Primulaceae
Annual or perennial herbs with simple leaves. Flowers perfect, regular, commonly with 5 fused sepals, 5 petals fused into a lobed tube, and 5 stamens. Fruit is a capsule, typically with five valves. Early blooming Parry's primrose (Primula parryi) is a favorite.
Primulaceae Primrose
Northern
Fairy Candelabra
 
Primulaceae
Primrose
Shooting Star
 
Primulaceae Primrose Parry's Primrose  
Primulaceae Primrose Alcove Primrose  
Pteridaceae Stems are compact and creeping. Once-to-six times pinnate leaves are monomorphic or dimorphic with persistent scales on the petioles and complex patterns on the veins. Sori often grow very close, forming a band very near the leaf margin. There are about 1,000 species world-wide with a number in arid climates.
Pteridaceae Maidenhair Fern Maidenhair Fern  
Pteridaceae Maidenhair Fern Argyrochosma limitanea Cloak Fern  
Pteridaceae Maidenhair Fern
Slender Lip Fern
 
Pteridaceae Rock Brake
Rock Brake
 
Pteridaceae Rock Brake
Steller's Rock Brake
 
Pyrolaceae

Members of this family are now in Ericaceae.

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SCIENTIFIC
FAMILY
NAME
COMMON
FAMILY
NAME
SCIENTIFIC
SPECIES
NAME
COMMON
SPECIES
NAME
NOTES
Ranunculaceae

Annual or perennial herbs or trailing vines. Leaves alternate, opposite, simple, deeply divided or variously compound. Flowers perfect (rarely imperfect), regular or irregular. Sepals and petals 3 to many. Stamens several to many, pistils 1 to many. Fruit hard and dry, berry, or follicle. A number of species are showy, moisture-loving, and carpet the ground: Water-plantain buttercup (Ranunculus alismifolius), Marsh Marigold (Caltha leptosepala).

Weber places some Ranunculaceae in Helleboraceae and Thalictraceae.

Ranunculaceae

Buttercup Monkshood

Weber places Aconitum in
Helleboraceae.

Ranunculaceae Buttercup Red Baneberry Weber places Actea in Helleboraceae.
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup
Windflower
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Colorado Columbine
Weber places Aquilegia in Helleboraceae.
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Columbine
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Columbine
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Shooting Star Columbine
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Alcove Columbine
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Western Clematis
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Marsh Marigold Weber calls this species Psychrophila leptosepala and places it in
Helleboraceae.
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Hornhead  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Sugarbowls
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Western Clematis
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup
Virgin's Bower Clematis
 
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup
Delphinium
Weber places Delphinium in
Helleboraceae.
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup
Larkspur
 
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup
Desert Delphinium
 
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Marsh Marigold Weber places Psychrophila in
Helleboraceae.
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Pasqueflower  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup

Ranunculus alismifolius var. montanus

Plantain-leaf Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Eschscholtz's Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Sagebrush Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Graceful Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Macauley's Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Woodland Buttercup  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Alpine Meadowrue  
Ranunculaceae
Buttercup Fendler's Meadowrue Weber places Thalictrum in
Thalictraceae.
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Tasselrue  
Ranunculaceae Buttercup Globe Flower Weber places Trollius in
Helleboraceae.
Rhamnaceae
Shrubs and trees with alternate or opposite simple or compound leaves. Flowers perfect or not, regular or nearly. Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Fruit is usually a drupe or capsule. Buckbrush (Ceanothus fendleri) has minute flowers to be marveled at with a hand lens. The plant can occur in very large patches.
Rhamnaceae Buckthorn

Ceanothus fendleri

Fendler's Ceanothus
Rhamnaceae
Buckthorn
Birchleaf Buckthorn
 
Rhamnaceae Buckthorn Smith's Buckthorn  
Rosaceae
Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves alternate or less commonly opposite, simple or compound. Flowers perfect or imperfect, regular, single or in clusters. Sepals and petals usually 5; 5 to numerous stamens (commonly in several whorls of 5), pistils 1 to many. Fruit is a dry achene, pod, drupe, berry. Although the flowers of the Rose Family are very similar, the variety of fruits is an indication of the complexity of this large family. The Rose Family gives us Apples, Pears, Cherries, Plums, Strawberries, and Raspberries. Numerous Rose Family well-known and showy wildflowers and trees range through the Rockies: Mountain Avens (Geum rossii), Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana), Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana).
Rosaceae Rose Alpine Avens  
Rosaceae Rose
Alder-leaf Serviceberry
 
Rosaceae Rose
Utah Serviceberry
 
Rosaceae Rose Mountain Mahogany  
Rosaceae Rose Cercocarpus ledifolius Curl-leaf Mountain Mahogany  
Rosaceae Rose Mountain Mahogany  
Rosaceae Rose
Blackbrush
 
Rosaceae Rose
Hawthorn
 
Rosaceae Rose Shrubby Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae
Rose
Sticky Cinquefoil
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Prairie Smoke
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Fallugia paradoxa
Apache Plume
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Little Strawberry
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Virginia Strawberry
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Yellow Avens
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Large Leaf Avens
 
Rosaceae Rose Alpine Avens  
Rosaceae
Rose
Prairie Smoke
 
Rosaceae
Rose
Ivesia gordonii Ivesia  
Rosaceae Rose Chokecherry  
Rosaceae Rose Shrubby Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Squaw Apple  
Rosaceae Rose Rockmat  
Rosaceae Rose Elegant Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Potentilla gracilis Slender Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Hippio's Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Potentilla nivea Snow Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Pennsylvania Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Platte River Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Beautiful Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Red-stemmed Cinquefoil  
Rosaceae Rose Poterium sanguisorba ssp. muricatum Burnet  
Rosaceae Rose Chokecherry  
Rosaceae Rose Cliff Rose  
Rosaceae Rose Buckbrush  
Rosaceae Rose Wild Rose  
Rosaceae Rose Thimbleberry  
Rosaceae Rose Red Raspberry  
Rosaceae Rose Sibbaldia  
Rosaceae Rose Rowan Tree  
Rubiaceae
Herbs or shrubs. leaves opposite or whorled, simple, entire. Flowers perfect or not, regular, usually in clusters. Flowers have 4-5 sepals, 4-5 fused petals, and 4-5 stamens. Fruit typically a capsule, drupe, or berry. Bedstraw (Galium boreale) lends a pervasive sweetness to summer hiking.
Rubiaceae
Madder
Northern Bedstraw
 
Rubiaceae
Madder
Fragrant Bedstraw
 
Ruscaceae

APG places this family in Asparagaceae (Asparagus Family). Perennial herb to shrub, rhizomed or not. Stem: leafy or scapose. Leaf: 2–15, basal or cauline, cauline clasping or sheathing, petioled [or reduced to scales, with short branches flattened, green, appearing leaf-like]. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, panicle or raceme. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, generally white; perianth parts 4 or 6, fused or not, erect, nodding or pendent; stamens (4)6, ± fused to perianth, anthers attached near base; ovary superior, chambers 2–3, style 1, stigma ± 3-lobed. Fruit: berry, spheric, red, orange-red, or blue-black, or capsule, papery. Seed: 1–12. (From Jepson eFlora.)

Members of this family were formerly in Liliaceae.

Ruscaceae Butcher's Broom Solomon's Plume  
Ruscaceae Butcher's Broom Star Lily  
Salicaceae
Dwarf shrubs to large trees. Leaves alternate, simple, entire. Flowers not perfect in catkins. Male flowers of 1 to many stamens, female of a single pistil. Fruit is a capsule with numerous small seeds, each bearing a tuft of white, silky hairs. This is a very well-known family as it gives us the difficult to identify Willows (Salix spp) and the golden, fall-glowing, and easy to identify Aspen (Populus tremuloides).
Salicaceae Willow Silver Poplar  
Salicaceae Willow Narrowleaf Cottonwood