Features for Summer 2016

Plant: Populus deltoides
Text: Plant ID workshop
Definitions: Leaf position
Biography: Linnaeus
Links: Flora of North America

Native Plants On-line Discussion Groups

Do you have questions about native plants? Would you like to share information and enthusiasm about native plants? 

Join the Colorado and/or New Mexico Native Plants on-line botanical discussion groups for amateurs and professionals. Once you sign up you can participate as much or as little as you want to. Send in photographs of your mystery native plants for identification and discuss key issues about conserving native plants, techniques for growing native plants in your garden, plant photography, etc. 

1)  Click to join the ColoradoNativePlant Facebook discussion group.

2)  Click to join the New Mexico native plant discussion group.

Try the new App:
"Colorado Rocky Mountain Wildflowers"

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The app has photos and descriptions of over
600 plants found in the foothills, montane, subalpine, and alpine areas of Colorado and the greater Rocky Mountain region from Mexico to Canada. The app is based on this web site.
Click to view details. A free demo app is available.

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Recent Additions to this Web Site

1) During the winter of 2015-2016 all species shown on this web site were updated with new information.

2) Click below for 2016 photographs of species new to this web site.

March, 2016
Boechera quadrangulensis

April, 2016
Boechera fendleri

May, 2016
Townsendia exscapa
Agoseris parviflora
Astragalus schmolliae
Lygodesmia grandiflora variety entrada

June, 2016
Corallorhiza wisteriana
Astragalus deterior
Lygodesmia doloresensis
Penstemon palmeri

July, 2016

August, 2016

September, 2016

3) Click below for 2016 photographs of species already on this web site.

March, 2016
Rumex hymenosepalus
Ephedra torreyana
Quercus turbinella
Fraxinus anomala
Primula specuicola
Lappula redowskii
Thelypodiopsis aurea
Astragalus flavus
Artemisia filifolia
Lomatium latilobum
Scabrethia scabra
Astragalus desperatus

April, 2016
Lepidium montanum
Cercocarpus intricatus
Pediomelum megalanthum
Townsendia glabella
Boechera formosa
Fendlera rupicola
Castilleja chromosa
Astragalus eastwoodiae

Cryptantha crassisepala
Astragalus flavus
Gilia ophthalmoides

Updated biography of Linnaeus

Chaetopappa ericoides
Ipomopsis polycladon
Draba cuneifolia
Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia
Oenothera albicaulis
Astragalus mollissimus
Erysimum capitatum
Yucca angustissima
Lepidium lasiocarpum
Phacelia crenulata
Xanthisma spinulosum
Rhinotropis subspinosa
Stenotus armerioides
Eremogone eastwoodiae
Oreocarya flava
Phlox canescens
Goodyera oblongifolia
Townsendia incana
Astragalus calycosus
Physaria acutifolia
Ulmus pumila
Crataegus rivularis
Streptanthus cordatus
Gutierrezia sarothrae
Erysimum capitatum
Physaria rectipes
Castilleja chromosa
Astragalus lonchocarpus
Astragalus wingatanus
Artemisia ludoviciana
Eriogonum racemosum
Sphaeralcea coccinea
Penstemon rostriflorus
Physaria acutifolia
Erigeron tracyi
Ipomopsis congesta
Astragalus coltonii

May, 2016
Juniperus monosperma
Microsteris gracilis
Opuntia polyacantha
Stanleya pinnata
Chaenactis stevioides
Astragalus flavus 
Tetradymia spinosa
Lomatium dissectum
Berberis fendleri
Chorispora tenella
Penstemon eatonii
Purshia stansburiana
Tetraneuris ivesiana
Eriogonum ovalifolium
Yucca angustissima
Oenothera lavandulifolia
Juniperus osteosperma
Chaenactis douglasii
Astragalus scopulorum
Antennaria parvifolia
Astragalus missouriensis
Xanthisma spinulosum
Opuntia polyacantha
Astragalus naturitensis
Scabrethia scabra
Grindelia hirsutula
Amsonia tomentosa
Tiquilia latior
Epipactis gigantea
Oenothera caespitosa subspecies navajoensis
Ephedra torreyana
Adiantum capillus-veneris

Oenothera caespitosa subspecies marginata
Erigeron utahensis
Sophora stenophylla
Poliomintha incana
Eriogonum leptophyllum
Penstemon barbatus
Pinus edulis
Crepis intermedia / Crepis acuminata
Ipomopsis aggregata
Quercus gambelii
Erigeron eatonii
Acer grandidentatum
Ribes cereum

June, 2016
Antennaria marginata
Fragaria vesca
Corallorhiza maculata
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Collomia grandiflora
Calypso bulbosa
Paxistima myrsinites
Linnaea borealis
Besseya ritteriana
Shepherdia canadensis
Trollius laxus
Viola canadensis
Androsace septentrionalis
Shepherdia canadensis
Vaccinium myrtillus
Lomatium triternatum
Astragalus bisulcatus
Astragalus pattersonii
Penstemon crandallii
Wyethia arizonica

Tetraneuris acaulis
Abies bifolia
Pteridium aquilinum
Ribes montigenum
Cryptogramma acrostichoides
Stephanomeria pauciflora
Thalictrum fendleri
Atriplex canescens
Anemone multifida
Pinus contorta

New Plant List: Gateway Area

Lomatium dissectum
Philadelphus microphyllus
Asclepias speciosa

July, 2016

August, 2016

September, 2016


Genetic and morphological research continues to produce new information about relationships among plants and new names for these plants. The table below lists some relatively recent name changes. The new names are in accord with the Biota of North America Program, the product of John Kartesz's continuing study of all research published on the plants of the United States and Canada. These names are also almost always the same as you will find in the Flora of North America and the APG III system.

Synonym New Name
Anotites menziesii Silene menziesii
Asclepias macrosperma Asclepias involucrata
Aster foliaceus Symphyotrichum
var. canbyi
Aster spathulatus Symphyotrichum
Astragalus cottamii Astragalus monumentalis
Astragalus tenellus Astragalus multiflorus
Bahia dissecta Amauriopsis dissecta
Calylophus lavandulifolius Oenothera lavandulifolia
Camissonia scapoidea Chylismia scapoidea
Camissonia walkeri Chylismia walkeri
Cardaria chalepensis Lepidium chalepensis
Castilleja sulphurea Castilleja septentrionalis
Centaurea repens Rhaponticum repens
Cerastium strictum Cerastium arvense
Chaenactis alpina Chaenactis douglasii
Chamaesyce fendleri Euphorbia fendleri
Chamaesyce glyptosperma Euphorbia glyptosperma
Chamerion danielsii Chamerion angustifolium
ssp. circumvagum
Chamerion subdentatum Chamerion latifolium
Cirsium eatonii var. hesperium Cirsium scopulorum
Cleome lutea Peritoma lutea
Cleome serrulata Peritoma serrulata
Coryphantha missouriensis Escobaria missouriensis
Coryphantha vivipara Escobaria vivipara
Cymopterus bulbosus Vesper bulbosus
Cymopterus constancei Vesper constancei
Encelia frutescens Encelia resinifera var. resinosa
Erigeron peregrinus Erigeron glacialis var. glacialis
Frangula betulifolia ssp. obovata Frangula obovata
Listera cordata Neottia cordata
Lotus wrightii Acmispon wrightii
Lysiella obtusata Platanthera obtusata
Machaeranthera spp. Xanthisma spp. or
Dieteria spp.
Malcolmia africana Strigosella africana
Mitella pentandra Pectiantia pentandra
Pentaphylloides floribunda Dasiphora fruticosa
Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens Phlox canescens
Polygala subspinosa Rhinotropis subspinosa
Pseudocymopterus montanus Cymopterus lemmonii
Saxifraga odontoloma Micranthes odontoloma
Schoenocrambe linifolia Sisymbrium linifolium
Smelowskia calycina
var. americana
Smelowskia americana
Solidago canadensis Solidago velutina
Spergulastrum lanuginosum Arenaria lanuginosa
ssp. saxosa
Talinum brevifolium Phemeranthus brevifolius
Trollius albiflorus Trollius laxus ssp. albiflorus
Urtica gracilis Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis
Valeriana capitata Valeriana acutiloba
Veronica nutans Veronica wormskjoldii



Genetic research carried on since the 1990s has provided considerable new information about the relationship of plants. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) was formed to review the research and make taxonomic recommendations, many of which led to the merging of some families and the movement of some genera to new families. The vast majority of families and genera have not been shifted into new families, and species names have not been changed.

Major herbaria, most botanists, and most new publications accept the APG research and the new family classifications.

This web site uses the APG III classification, which is also accepted by John Kartesz, the ultimate authority for all plant names on this web site.

Click here to see the composition of all families shown in this web site.

Following are the family shifts that affect plants found on this web site. This information is current as of January, 2016. There certainly will be updates.

Almost all genera of the Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae) have been moved to other families:
Paintbrush (Castilleja), Lousewort (Pedicularis), Club Flower (Cordylanthus), and Owl Clover (Orthocarpus) are now in the Broomrape Family (Orobanchaceae);
Snow Lover (Chionophila), Blue-Eyed Mary (Collinsia), Toadflax (Linaria), Penstemon (Penstemon), Veronica (Veronica and Veronicastrum) are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae);
Monkey Flower (Mimulus) is now in the Lopseed Family (Phrymaceae).

All Maple Family (Aceraceae) genera including Maple (Acer) are now in the Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae).

All Waterleaf Family (Hydrophyllaceae) genera including Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum), Fiddleleaf  (Nama), and Scorpion Weed (Phacelia) are now in the Borage Family (Boraginaceae).

All Pyrola Family (Pyrolaceae) genera including Single Delight (Moneses), One-sided Wintergreen (Orthilia), and Pyrola (Pyrola) are now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae).

Almost all Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae) genera including Saltbush (Atriplex), Goosefoot (Chenopodium), Hop Sage (Grayia), Saltlover (Halogeton), Winter Fat (Krascheninnikovia), Poverty Weed (Monolepis), Green Molly (Neokochia), and Tumble Weed (Salsola) are now in the Amaranth Family (Amaranthaceae).
Greasewood (Sarcobatus) is in the Greasewood Family (Sarcobataceae).

All Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae) genera including Milkweed (Asclepias) are now in the Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae).

Many Lily Family (Liliaceae) genera are in new families:
Onions (Allium) are in the Amaryllis Family (Amaryllidaceae);
Sand Lily (Androstephium) and Giant Onion (Triteleia) are in the Asparagus Family (Asparagaceae);
Corn Lily (Veratrum) and Death Camas (Anticlea) are in the False Hellebore Family (Melanthiaceae);
Solomon's Plume & Star Lily (Maianthemum) are in the Asparagus Family (Asparagaceae);
Sand Lily (Eremocrinum) is in the Asparagus Family (Asparagaceae).

Most Purslane Family (Portulacaceae) genera including Spring Beauty (Claytonia), Bitterroot (Lewisia), Fameflower (Phemeranthus) are now in the Miner's Lettuce Family (Montiaceae).

All Mistletoe Family (Viscaceae) genera including Ponderosa Mistletoe (Arceuthobium) and Juniper Mistletoe (Phoradendron) are now in the Sandalwood Family (Santalaceae).

Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia) is now in the Staff-tree Family (Celastraceae), not in the Saxifrage Family (Saxifragaceae).

Burreed (Sparganium) is now in the Cattail Family (Typhaceae), not in the Burreed Family (Sparganiaceae).

All Mare's Tale Family (Hippuridaceae) genera including Hippuris are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae).

St. Johnswort (Hypericum) is now in the St. Johnswort Family (Hypericaceae), not in the Scotch Attorney Family (Clusiaceae).

Hackberry (Celtis) is now in the Hemp Family (Cannabaceae), not in the Elm Family (Ulmaceae).

Pinedrops (Pterospora andromedea) is now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae), not in the Pinesap Family (Monotropaceae).

Bee Plants (Cleome, Cleomella, and Peritoma) are now in the Cleome Family (Cleomaceae), not the Caper Family (Capparaceae).

Click here to see a list of all families according to the APG classification.

Click for Walt Fertig's succinct discussion of the APG families.

Click for a nice discussion of APG in Wikipedia.

Click for the very complex APG details.


Immediately below you will find links to comments & updates on three Colorado floras.

Floras are complex and very time consuming to write. They demand not only expertise in the plants of an area but also expertise in technical writing, logic, and scientific precision. Three recent floras of Colorado strive for these goals and achieve them to various degrees, but all three have great room for improvement, especially in the construction of clear and accurate keys.

Comments & Updates on Weber and Wittmann's Colorado Flora

Click here for comments on the flora of Colorado and helpful suggestions for better understanding Weber and Wittmann's 2012, 4th edition of Colorado Flora.

Click to order and read more about Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Eastern Slope.

Comments & Updates on Heil and O'Kane's
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click here for comments, corrections, and additions to the 2013,
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click to order and read more about this flora.

Comments & Updates on Ackerfield's Flora of Colorado

Click here for reading comments about and submitting your comments on the Flora of Colorado.