Features for WINTER

Plant: Krascheninnikovia lanata (Winterfat)
Text: How to Identify Plants
Definitions: Botanical Descriptions
Biography: Thomas Nuttall
Links: Colorado Rare Plants

Test Drive the new App:
Colorado Rocky Mountain Wildflowers

A 5 star app of wildflowers from the foothills to the alpine region is available for most smart devices, Android and Apple, phones and tablets.
The app has photos and descriptions of over
600 plants found in Colorado and throughout the Rocky Mountains.
Click to view details. A free demo app is available.


Click for the new "Bees and Wildflowers" app.


Recent Additions to this Web Site

1) New: "How to Identify Plants Using a Botanical Key".

2)  Photographs of species new to this web site. Also see #3 below.

April, 2014
Phacelia howelliana

May, 2014
Asclepias cutleri
Marrubium vulgare
Chamaechaenactis scaposa

June, 2014
Antennaria parvifolia
Mentzelia rusbyi

August, 2014
Persicaria lapathifolia
Persicaria maculosa
Equisetum laevigatum

September, 2014
Euphorbia serpyllifolia

October, 2014
Cirsium vulgare

November, 2014

3)  New photographs of species already on this web site.

March, 2014
Opuntia polyacantha

April, 2014
Shepherdia rotundifolia
Lomatium parryi

Arctostaphylos patula
Erysimum capitatum
Astragalus mollissimus
Astragalus preussii
Phacelia crenulata
Oenothera pallida
Oenothera caespitosa
Tetraneuris ivesiana
Stanleya pinnata
Camissonia walkeri
Ipomopsis polycladon
Oreocarya humilis
Oenothera albicaulis
Eriogonum inflatum
Astragalus lentiginosus

May, 2014
Mimulus eastwoodiae
Yucca harrimaniae
Lygodesmia grandiflora variety arizonica
Asclepias involucrata
Aquilegia micrantha
Ivesia gordonii
Orogenia linearifolia
Tetraneuris acaulis var. arizonica
Oenothera albicaulis
Streptanthella longirostris
Wyethia arizonica
Nathaniel Wyeth
Fraxinus anomala
Astragalus desperatus
Phemeranthus brevifolius
Frangula obovata
Opuntia phaeacantha
Comandra umbellata
Fendlera rupicola
Equisetum arvense
Packera multilobata

June, 2014
Pteridium aquilinum
Phacelia crenulata
Linanthus pungens
Atriplex canescens
Cardamine cordifolia
Opuntia fragilis
Berberis fendleri
Pinus ponderosa
Erigeron flagellaris
Maianthemum racemosum
Ribes montigenum
Valeriana edulis
Onobrychis viciifolia

July, 2014
Sambucus racemosa variety racemosa
Yikes! My camera died.
And now a Sony RX10 has replaced my dead Panasonic.
Long live the Sony.

August, 2014
Senecio eremophilus

Abies bifolia
Ipomopsis tenuituba
Lupinus prunophilus
Erigeron abajoensis
Anemone multifida
Ipomopsis aggregata
Packera crocata
Agoseris aurantiaca
Picea engelmannii
Hymenoxys hoopesii
Geum macrophyllum
Erigeron elatior
Erigeron speciosus
Senecio triangularis
Senecio atratus
Castilleja haydenii
Oreoxis bakeri
Tonestus pygmaeus
Mertensia  lanceolata
Draba aurea
Castilleja rhexiifolia
Pedicularis groenlandica
Bistorta vivipara
Bistorta bistortoides
Rhodiola rhodantha
Erigeron glacialis
Sibbaldia procumbens
Salix planifolia
Senecio triangularis
Geum rossii
Parnassia fimbriata
Linnaea borealis
Swertia perennis
Conioselinum scopulorum
Penstemon whippleanus
Swertia perennis
Mertensia  lanceolata
Flowers of Sharkstooth Pass

Typha latifolia
Oreochrysum parryi
Senecio triangularis
Agoseris aurantiaca
Packera werneriifolia
Gentiana parryi
Goodyera oblongifolia
Sidalcea candida
Heliomeris multiflora
Frasera speciosa
Erigeron eximius
Hieracium triste
Agoseris glauca
Anticlea elegans
Salix nivalis
Angelica grayi
Senecio amplectens variety amplectens
Senecio amplectens variety amplectens

September, 2014
Epilobium ciliatum
Carduus nutans
Senecio serra
Malva neglecta
Medicago sativa
Mentha arvensis
Fallugia paradoxa
Ericameria nauseosa
Dieteria bigelovii
Astragalus bisulcatus var. major
Chamerion angustifolium subspecies circumvagum
Tetradymia canescens
Erigeron divergens
Dieteria bigelovii

October, 2014
Ericameria nauseosa
Iris missouriensis
Pinus flexilis
Symphoricarpos rotundifolius
Bolam Pass
Verbesina encelioides
Rubus idaeus
Mahonia repens
Rubus parviflorus
Boechera stricta
Quercus gambelii
Goodyera oblongifolia

November, 2014
Populus deltoides
Juniperus scopulorum


Genetic research carried on since the 1990s has provided considerable new information about the relationship of plants. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) was formed to review the research and make taxonomic recommendations, many of which led to the merging of some families and the movement of some genera to new families. The vast majority of families and genera have not been shifted into new families, and species names have not been changed.

Major herbaria, most botanists, and most new publications accept the APG research and the new family classifications.

This Four Corners flora web site uses the APG III classification, which is also accepted by John Kartesz, the ultimate authority for all plant names on this web site.

Following are the family shifts that affect plants found on this web site. This information is current as of August, 2014. There certainly will be updates.

Almost all genera of the Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae) have been moved to other families:
Paintbrush (Castilleja), Lousewort (Pedicularis), Club Flower (Cordylanthus), and Owl Clover (Orthocarpus) are now in the Broomrape Family (Orobanchaceae);
Snow Lover (Chionophila), Blue-Eyed Mary (Collinsia), Toadflax (Linaria), Penstemon (Penstemon), Veronica (Veronica and Veronicastrum) are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae);
Monkey Flower (Mimulus) is now in the Lopseed Family (Phrymaceae).

All Maple Family (Aceraceae) genera including Maple (Acer) are now in the Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae).

All Waterleaf Family (Hydrophyllaceae) genera including Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum), Fiddleleaf  (Nama), and Scorpion Weed (Phacelia) are now in the Borage Family (Boraginaceae).

All Pyrola Family (Pyrolaceae) genera including Single Delight (Moneses), One-sided Wintergreen (Orthilia), and Pyrola (Pyrola) are now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae).

Almost all Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae) genera including Saltbush (Atriplex), Goosefoot (Chenopodium), Hop Sage (Grayia), Saltlover (Halogeton), Winter Fat (Krascheninnikovia), Poverty Weed (Monolepis), Green Molly (Neokochia), and Tumble Weed (Salsola) are now in the Amaranth Family (Amaranthaceae).
Greasewood (Sarcobatus) is in the Greasewood Family (Sarcobataceae).

All Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae) genera including Milkweed (Asclepias) are now in the Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae).

Many Lily Family (Liliaceae) genera are in new families:
Onions (Allium) are in the Onion Family (Alliaceae);
Sand Lily (Androstephium) and Giant Onion (Triteleia) are in the Brodiaea Family (Themidaceae);
Corn Lily (Veratrum) and Death Camas (Anticlea) are in the False Hellebore Family (Melanthiaceae);
False Solomon Seal (Maianthemum) is in Butcher's Broom Family (Ruscaceae);
Sand Lily (Eremocrinum) is in the Agave Family (Agavaceae).

Most Purslane Family (Portulacaceae) genera including Spring Beauty (Claytonia), Bitterroot (Lewisia), Fameflower (Phemeranthus) are now in the Miner's Lettuce Family (Montiaceae).

All Mistletoe Family (Viscaceae) genera including Ponderosa Mistletoe (Arceuthobium) and Juniper Mistletoe (Phoradendron) are now in the Sandalwood Family (Santalaceae).

Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia) is now in the Grass of Parnassus Family (Parnassiaceae), not in the Saxifrage Family (Saxifragaceae).

Burreed (Sparganium) is now in the Cattail Family (Typhaceae), not in the Burreed Family (Sparganiaceae).

All Mare's Tale Family (Hippuridaceae) genera including Hippuris are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae).

St. Johnswort (Hypericum) is now in the St. Johnswort Family (Hypericaceae), not in the Scotch Attorney Family (Clusiaceae).

Hackberry (Celtis) is now in the Hemp Family (Cannabaceae), not in the Elm Family (Ulmaceae).

Pinedrops (Pterospora andromedea) is now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae), not in the Pinesap Family (Monotropaceae).

Bee Plants (Cleome, Cleomella, and Peritoma) are now in the Cleome Family (Cleomaceae), not the Caper Family (Capparaceae).

Click for a list of the family changes brought about by genetic research. The red font indicates plants found on this web site.

Remember that the species names are all the same; only their grouping into families has changed.

Click here to see the composition of all families shown in this web site.

Click here to see a list of all families according to the APG classification.

Click for Walt Fertig's succinct discussion of the APG families.

Click for a nice discussion of APG in Wikipedia.

Click for the very complex APG details.


Comments & Updates on Weber and Wittmann's Colorado Flora

Click here for comments on the flora of Colorado and helpful suggestions for better understanding Weber and Wittmann's 2012, 4th edition of Colorado Flora.

Click to order and read more about Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Eastern Slope.

Please order Colorado Flora from the Exotic Plant Books Company and on the drop down menu at check out, specify that you would like 10% of your purchase price to go to the San Juan/Four Corners Native Plant Society.

Comments & Updates on Heil and O'Kane's
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click here for comments, corrections, and additions to the 2013,
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click to order and read more about this flora.

Please order from the Exotic Plant Books Company and on the drop down menu at check out, specify that you would like 10% of your purchase price to go to the San Juan/Four Corners Native Plant Society.

Native Plants On-line Discussion Groups

Do you have questions about native plants? Would you like to share information about native plants? 

Join the Colorado and New Mexico Native Plants on-line botanical discussion groups for amateurs and professionals. Once you sign up you can participate as much or as little as you want to.  Send in photographs of your mystery plants for identification, discuss key issues about conserving native plants, discuss techniques for growing native plants in your garden, learn about field trips, etc. 

1) Join the Colorado Native Plant discussion group by sending a blank email to coloradonativeplants@yahoogroups.com.

2)  To subscribe to the very active New Mexico discussion group: