Features for WINTER

Plant: Krascheninnikovia lanata (Winterfat)
Text: How to Identify Plants
Definitions: Botanical Descriptions
Biography: Thomas Nuttall
Links: Colorado Rare Plants

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Colorado Rocky Mountain Wildflowers

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The app has photos and descriptions of over
600 plants found in Colorado and throughout the Rocky Mountains. The app is, in large part, based on this web site.
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See below for lists of name changes of species and families.


Recent Additions to this Web Site

1) New: "How to Identify Plants Using a Botanical Key".

2)  Photographs of species new to this web site. Also see #3 below.

March, 2015
Corallorhiza trifida

3)  New photographs of species already on this web site.

February, 2015
Cylindropuntia whipplei

Rhus aromatica
Penstemon breviculus
Fraxinus anomala
Erysimum capitatum
Pinus edulis 

March, 2015


Genetic and morphological research continues to produce new information about relationships among plants and new names for these plants. The table below lists some relatively recent name changes. The new names are in accord with the Biota of North America, the product of John Kartesz's continuing study of all research published on the plants of the United States and Canada.

Synonym New Name
Anotites menziesii Silene menziesii
Asclepias macrosperma Asclepias involucrata
Aster foliaceus Symphyotrichum
var. canbyi
Aster spathulatus Symphyotrichum
Astragalus cottamii Astragalus monumentalis
Astragalus tenellus Astragalus multiflorus
Bahia dissecta Amauriopsis dissecta
Calylophus lavandulifolius Oenothera lavandulifolia
Camissonia scapoidea Chylismia scapoidea
Camissonia walkeri Chylismia walkeri
Cardaria chalepensis Lepidium chalepensis
Castilleja sulphurea Castilleja septentrionalis
Centaurea repens Rhaponticum repens
Cerastium strictum Cerastium arvense
Chaenactis alpina Chaenactis douglasii
Chamaesyce fendleri Euphorbia fendleri
Chamaesyce glyptosperma Euphorbia glyptosperma
Chamerion danielsii Chamerion angustifolium
ssp. circumvagum
Chamerion subdentatum Chamerion latifolium
Cirsium eatonii var. hesperium Cirsium scopulorum
Cleome lutea Peritoma lutea
Cleome serrulata Peritoma serrulata
Coryphantha missouriensis Escobaria missouriensis
Coryphantha vivipara Escobaria vivipara
Cymopterus bulbosus Vesper bulbosus
Cymopterus constancei Vesper constancei
Encelia frutescens Encelia resinifera var. resinosa
Erigeron peregrinus Erigeron glacialis var. glacialis
Frangula betulifolia ssp. obovata Frangula obovata
Listera cordata Neottia cordata
Lotus wrightii Acmispon wrightii
Lysiella obtusata Platanthera obtusata
Machaeranthera spp. Xanthisma spp. or
Dieteria spp.
Malcolmia africana Strigosella africana
Mitella pentandra Pectiantia pentandra
Pentaphylloides floribunda Dasiphora fruticosa
Phlox hoodii ssp. canescens Phlox canescens
Polygala subspinosa Rhinotropis subspinosa
Pseudocymopterus montanus Cymopterus lemmonii
Saxifraga odontoloma Micranthes odontoloma
Schoenocrambe linifolia Sisymbrium linifolium
Smelowskia calycina
var. americana
Smelowskia americana
Solidago canadensis Solidago velutina
Spergulastrum lanuginosum Arenaria lanuginosa
ssp. saxosa
Talinum brevifolium Phemeranthus brevifolius
Trollius albiflorus Trollius laxus ssp. albiflorus
Urtica gracilis Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis
Valeriana capitata Valeriana acutiloba
Veronica nutans Veronica wormskjoldii



Genetic research carried on since the 1990s has provided considerable new information about the relationship of plants. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG) was formed to review the research and make taxonomic recommendations, many of which led to the merging of some families and the movement of some genera to new families. The vast majority of families and genera have not been shifted into new families, and species names have not been changed.

Major herbaria, most botanists, and most new publications accept the APG research and the new family classifications.

This Four Corners flora web site uses the APG III classification, which is also accepted by John Kartesz, the ultimate authority for all plant names on this web site.

Following are the family shifts that affect plants found on this web site. This information is current as of August, 2014. There certainly will be updates.

Almost all genera of the Snapdragon Family (Scrophulariaceae) have been moved to other families:
Paintbrush (Castilleja), Lousewort (Pedicularis), Club Flower (Cordylanthus), and Owl Clover (Orthocarpus) are now in the Broomrape Family (Orobanchaceae);
Snow Lover (Chionophila), Blue-Eyed Mary (Collinsia), Toadflax (Linaria), Penstemon (Penstemon), Veronica (Veronica and Veronicastrum) are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae);
Monkey Flower (Mimulus) is now in the Lopseed Family (Phrymaceae).

All Maple Family (Aceraceae) genera including Maple (Acer) are now in the Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae).

All Waterleaf Family (Hydrophyllaceae) genera including Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum), Fiddleleaf  (Nama), and Scorpion Weed (Phacelia) are now in the Borage Family (Boraginaceae).

All Pyrola Family (Pyrolaceae) genera including Single Delight (Moneses), One-sided Wintergreen (Orthilia), and Pyrola (Pyrola) are now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae).

Almost all Goosefoot Family (Chenopodiaceae) genera including Saltbush (Atriplex), Goosefoot (Chenopodium), Hop Sage (Grayia), Saltlover (Halogeton), Winter Fat (Krascheninnikovia), Poverty Weed (Monolepis), Green Molly (Neokochia), and Tumble Weed (Salsola) are now in the Amaranth Family (Amaranthaceae).
Greasewood (Sarcobatus) is in the Greasewood Family (Sarcobataceae).

All Milkweed Family (Asclepiadaceae) genera including Milkweed (Asclepias) are now in the Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae).

Many Lily Family (Liliaceae) genera are in new families:
Onions (Allium) are in the Onion Family (Alliaceae);
Sand Lily (Androstephium) and Giant Onion (Triteleia) are in the Brodiaea Family (Themidaceae);
Corn Lily (Veratrum) and Death Camas (Anticlea) are in the False Hellebore Family (Melanthiaceae);
False Solomon Seal (Maianthemum) is in Butcher's Broom Family (Ruscaceae);
Sand Lily (Eremocrinum) is in the Agave Family (Agavaceae).

Most Purslane Family (Portulacaceae) genera including Spring Beauty (Claytonia), Bitterroot (Lewisia), Fameflower (Phemeranthus) are now in the Miner's Lettuce Family (Montiaceae).

All Mistletoe Family (Viscaceae) genera including Ponderosa Mistletoe (Arceuthobium) and Juniper Mistletoe (Phoradendron) are now in the Sandalwood Family (Santalaceae).

Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia) is now in the Grass of Parnassus Family (Parnassiaceae), not in the Saxifrage Family (Saxifragaceae).

Burreed (Sparganium) is now in the Cattail Family (Typhaceae), not in the Burreed Family (Sparganiaceae).

All Mare's Tale Family (Hippuridaceae) genera including Hippuris are now in the Plantain Family (Plantaginaceae).

St. Johnswort (Hypericum) is now in the St. Johnswort Family (Hypericaceae), not in the Scotch Attorney Family (Clusiaceae).

Hackberry (Celtis) is now in the Hemp Family (Cannabaceae), not in the Elm Family (Ulmaceae).

Pinedrops (Pterospora andromedea) is now in the Heath Family (Ericaceae), not in the Pinesap Family (Monotropaceae).

Bee Plants (Cleome, Cleomella, and Peritoma) are now in the Cleome Family (Cleomaceae), not the Caper Family (Capparaceae).

Click for a list of the family changes brought about by genetic research. The red font indicates plants found on this web site.

Remember that the species names are all the same; only their grouping into families has changed.

Click here to see the composition of all families shown in this web site.

Click here to see a list of all families according to the APG classification.

Click for Walt Fertig's succinct discussion of the APG families.

Click for a nice discussion of APG in Wikipedia.

Click for the very complex APG details.


Comments & Updates on Weber and Wittmann's Colorado Flora

Click here for comments on the flora of Colorado and helpful suggestions for better understanding Weber and Wittmann's 2012, 4th edition of Colorado Flora.

Click to order and read more about Colorado Flora: Western Slope. Eastern Slope.

Please order Colorado Flora from the Exotic Plant Books Company and on the drop down menu at check out, specify that you would like 10% of your purchase price to go to the San Juan/Four Corners Native Plant Society.

Comments & Updates on Heil and O'Kane's
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click here for comments, corrections, and additions to the 2013,
Flora of the Four Corners Region

Click to order and read more about this flora.

Please order from the Exotic Plant Books Company and on the drop down menu at check out, specify that you would like 10% of your purchase price to go to the San Juan/Four Corners Native Plant Society.

Native Plants On-line Discussion Groups

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